Nutrition - Nutrition and Metabolism Overview Nutrients substances that promote normal growth maintenance and repair Major nutrients carbohydrates

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Nutrition and Metabolism
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Overview Nutrients: substances that promote normal  growth, maintenance, and repair Major nutrients – carbohydrates, lipids,  and proteins; all organic compounds that  make up the bulk of our food. Other nutrients – vitamins and minerals  (and technically speaking, water); organic  and inorganic compounds in small or trace  amounts.
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Food Pyramid
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Carbohydrates Most have the general formula C(H 2 0) n but not all. Aldehydes or ketones with hydroxyl  groups added. Many carbohydrates are saccharides  (sugars). Saccharides may be simple (one or two  monomers) or complex (polymers).
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Carbohydrates Complex carbohydrates include starches,  glycogen, and cellulose. All three are chains of glucose molecules. Complex carbohydrates (starches) are  found in bread, cereal, flour, pasta, nuts,  and potatoes  Simple carbohydrates (sugars) are found  in soft drinks, candy, fruit, and ice cream.
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Glucose All ingested carbohydrates are broken  down into or converted to glucose. Glucose is the molecule ultimately used by  body cells to make ATP Neurons and RBCs rely almost entirely  upon glucose to supply their energy needs Excess glucose is converted to glycogen  or fat and stored
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Glucose The minimum amount of carbohydrates  needed to maintain adequate blood  glucose levels is 100 grams per day Starchy foods and milk have nutrients  such as vitamins and minerals in addition  to complex carbohydrates Refined carbohydrate foods (candy and  soft drinks) provide energy sources only  and are referred to as “empty calories”
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Lipids Lipids are hydrophobic molecules that play  important roles in: Cell membranes Cell signaling Energy storage The most common forms of lipids are  phospholipids, triglycerides, fatty acids,  steroids, and prostaglandins.
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Lipids Lipids are found in most foods, but are  most abundant in: Fats – solid at room temperature Oils – liquid at room temperature Meats, eggs, milk, and even some fruits,  such as avocados and olives, are high in  lipids. Some lipids cannot be synthesized and  must be obtained from diet (essential fatty  acids).
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Lipids The most abundant dietary lipids,  triglycerides, are found in both animal and  plant foods Essential fatty acids – linoleic and linolenic  acid, found in most vegetables, must be  ingested Dietary fats:  Help the body to absorb vitamins Are a major energy fuel of hepatocytes and  skeletal muscle Are a component of myelin sheaths and all cell  membranes
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Lipids Fatty deposits in adipose tissue provide: A protective cushion around body organs
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Kasparian during the Spring '10 term at North Texas.

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Nutrition - Nutrition and Metabolism Overview Nutrients substances that promote normal growth maintenance and repair Major nutrients carbohydrates

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