Reproduction - Reproductive System Overview Sexual...

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Reproductive System
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Overview Sexual reproduction involves the production of a new individual organism by the fusion of cells from two parent organisms. Advantage over asexual reproduction is the generation of novel genetic variation. Sexes are distinguished by the size of the gametes: Male gametes are small Female gametes are large
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Overview Primary sex organs (gonads) – testes in males, ovaries in females. Gonads produce sex cells called gametes and secrete sex hormones. Accessory reproductive organs – ducts, glands, and external genitalia. Sex hormones – androgens (males), and estrogens and progesterone (females).
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Overview Sex hormones play roles in: The development and function of the reproductive organs. Sexual behavior and drives. The growth and development of many other organs and tissues. Secondary sexual characteristics are those traits that differ between sexes that are not part of the reproductive system itself.
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Male Reproductive System The male gonads (testes) produce sperm and lie within the scrotum. Sperm are delivered to the exterior through a system of ducts: epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra. Accessory sex glands: Empty their secretions into the ducts during ejaculation Include the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands
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Male Reproductive System
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Scrotum Sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis. Contains paired testicles separated by a midline septum. Its external positioning keeps the testes 3 ° C lower than core body temperature (needed for sperm production). Intrascrotal temperature is kept constant by two sets of muscles: Dartos – smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin Cremaster – bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes
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Scrotum
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Testes Each testis is surrounded by two tunics: The tunica vaginalis, derived from peritoneum The tunica albuginea, the fibrous capsule of the testis Septa divide the testis into 250-300 lobules, each containing 1-4 seminiferous tubules. Seminiferous tubules: Produce the sperm Converge to form the tubulus rectus The straight tubulus rectus conveys sperm to the rete testis.
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Testes From the rete testis, the sperm: Leave the testis via efferent ductules Enter the epididymis Surrounding the seminiferous tubules are interstitial cells that produce androgens. Testicular arteries branch from the abdominal aorta and supply the testes. Testicular veins arise from the pampiniform plexus. Spermatic cord – encloses PNS and SNS nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply the testes.
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Testes
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Epididymis Its head joins the efferent ductules and caps the superior aspect of the testis. The duct of the epididymis has stereocilia
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Reproduction - Reproductive System Overview Sexual...

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