RespiratorySystem

RespiratorySystem - Respiratory System Overview The primary...

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Unformatted text preview: Respiratory System Overview The primary function of the respiratory system is to allow for the exchange of respiratory gasses (oxygen and carbon dioxide). The four processes that are involved in this function are: Pulmonary Ventilation External Respiration Transport Internal Respiration Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation is what we would commonly call breathing. It is the process of moving air into the lungs (inspiration) so that it can come into contact with the respiratory exchange surfaces. It is also the process of expelling air from the lungs (expiration) so that carbon dioxide can be removed. External Respiration External respiration is the exchange of gasses across the external respiratory surfaces, i.e. the alveolar epithelium and the endothelium of the pulmonary capillaries. This exchange occurs through simple diffusion. Required because humans are too large for oxygen to reach their tissues directly from the environment. Transport Transport is the movement of respiratory gasses by the blood between the lungs and the systemic tissues. Employs carrier proteins such as hemoglobin. Also involves direct solution of gasses in the aqueous medium of the plasma. Transport of carbon dioxide is involve in acid-base regulation of the body. Internal Respiration Internal respiration is the exchange of gasses across the internal respiratory surfaces, i.e. the endothelium of the systemic capillaries and the interstitial fluid. This exchange also occurs through simple diffusion. Not to be confused with cellular respiration. Anatomy The organs of the respiratory system are involved with external respiration. They are divided into the upper and lower respiratory organs. They can also be divided into the conducting zone (which conducts air to the respiratory zone) and the respiratory zone (which is the actual site of external respiration). Anatomy Conducting Zone The conducting zone consists of the: Nasal cavity Phyarynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi The walls of these organs are elaborated into a number or accessory respiratory structures. Nasal Cavity The nasal cavity consists of the: Nose, including the structures surrounding the external nasal openings (nares). Olfactory epithelium. Nasal conchae. Nasal septum....
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RespiratorySystem - Respiratory System Overview The primary...

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