UrinarySystem

UrinarySystem - Urinary System Overview The kidneys are the...

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Urinary System
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Overview The kidneys are the main functional  organs of the urinary system. Other organs include: Urinary bladder – provides a temporary  storage reservoir for urine Paired ureters – transport urine from the  kidneys to the bladder Urethra – transports urine from the bladder  out of the body
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Urinary Organs
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Kidneys Filter 200 liters of blood daily, allowing toxins,  metabolic wastes, and excess ions to leave the  body in urine. Regulate volume and chemical makeup of the  blood. Maintain the proper balance between water and  salts, and acids and bases. Gluconeogenesis during prolonged fasting. Production of renin to help regulate blood  pressure and erythropoietin to stimulate RBC  production. Activation of vitamin D.
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Kidneys The kidneys lie in a retroperitoneal  position in the superior lumbar region. The right kidney is lower than the left  because it is crowded by the liver. The lateral surface is convex; the medial  surface is concave. The renal hilus leads to the renal sinus. Ureters, renal blood vessels, lymphatics,  and nerves enter and exit at the hilus.
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Kidneys Renal capsule – fibrous capsule that  prevents kidney infection Adipose capsule – fatty mass that  cushions the kidney and helps attach it to  the body wall Renal fascia – outer layer of dense fibrous  connective tissue that anchors the kidney
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Kidneys
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Kidneys (Internal Anatomy) Cortex – the light colored, granular  superficial region Medulla – exhibits cone-shaped medullary  (renal) pyramids separated by columns The medullary pyramid and its surrounding  capsule constitute a lobe Renal pelvis – flat funnel shaped tube  lateral to the hilus within the renal sinus
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Kidneys (Internal Anatomy) Major calyces – large branches of the  renal pelvis: Collect urine draining from papillae  Empty urine into the pelvis Urine flows through the pelvis and ureters  to the bladder.
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Kidneys (Internal Anatomy)
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Kidneys (Blood and Nerve  Supply) Approximately one-fourth (1200 ml) of  systemic cardiac output flows through the  kidneys each minute. Arterial flow into and venous flow out of  the kidneys follow similar paths. The nerve supply is via the renal plexus.
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Nephrons Nephrons are the structural and functional  units that form urine, consisting of: Glomerulus Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule Renal tubule: Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule
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Nephrons
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Glomerulus Glomerulus – a tuft of capillaries associated  with a renal tubule. Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule – blind, cup-
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2011 for the course BIOL 2301 taught by Professor Kasparian during the Spring '10 term at North Texas.

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UrinarySystem - Urinary System Overview The kidneys are the...

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