Geology 101 - Multiple Choice Questions_

Geology 101 - Multiple Choice Questions_ - @Oi637 /Of 4...

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Unformatted text preview: @Oi637 /Of 4 4‘. The aesthenosphere is composed of rock rich in: a./ quartz and olivine b. gabbro peridotite (>90% olivine) a basalt -- \om “we: grow Wet WH‘t Let, amphibole and pyroxene 5. As a granitic magma (wet melt) rises toward the surface: a a. its melting temperature will increase. be. its melting temperature will decrease c. it will tend to crystallize before it reaches the surface nswers a and c are both correct . answers b and c are both correct 6.. A partial melt of the asthenosphere will tend to rise toward the surface because 6 . a. because of centrifugel forces b. earth's magnetic field c. convection cells in the outer core -._ d. of gas bubbles within the magma he melt is less dense than the surrounding rock V 7. Pillow basalts form r. ' a, when basalt is extuded thr0ugh a narrow opening. b. when a basalt flow is blocked and the flow piles up in pillow stnrcturesr. c. when the basalt flow is erupted onto land and chilled quickly @when the basalt flow is erupted into water e.. none of the above are correct 8,. When two ocean plates converge B a. the younger plate Will be subducted Q the older plate will be subducted c. the plate closest to ocean water will be subducted d. a collision mountain belt will form e. none of the above are correct 9. The most widely accepted explanatibn for the earth's magnetic field is Q . '@ movement of electrons in the molten iron of its outer core w b.. movement of electrons in the molten iron of its inner core c. small magnetic mineral present in its crust d. the earth does not have a magnetic field er. none of the above are correct 10:. What kind of plate margin existed when the Appalachian Mountains formed during the Paieozoic Era? a. divergent margin ‘v' b. convergent margin (ocean-continental collision) cl. convergent margin (ocean-ocean collision) d. transform margin collision margin (continent-continent) 15. Diamond is harder than graphite because: C a. diamonds have covalent bonds between atoms while graphite has metallic bonds between its atoms. ‘b\diamonds and graphite have the same bonds, but diamonds are composed of a harder ment than graphite. r iamonds have covalent bonds between its constituent atoms while graphite has vanderwahl nds. \diamond and graphite have the same hardness except graphite is composed of a powdered form. e. none of the above answers are correct 16. The silicate tetrahedron (Sio4)? has a net charge of E a. +4 - @34- c, -3 d. +2 e. 0 (rt is balanced) 18. Why do the terrestrial planets have so little molecular (gaseous) hydrogen? a. Hydrogen was a very rare component of the primordial dust from which the planets formed. b. The terrestrial planets have a large component of molecular hydrogen in their interiors. ©The terrestrial planets are close to the sun and the low density hydrogen was lost to space. d. HydrOgen is only present as water in all planets. e. none of the above are correct 22.. Why does the topographic expression of the Hawaiian island become progressively lower from the Big Island to l the island lying northwest? a. the topographic expression of all the Hawaiian Islands is the same b. the ocean lithosphere is less dense to the northwest and it floats higher 0. there is a subductiOn zone to the northwest drawing the ocean crust downward d. the Big island has a segment of continental crust within its interior @the ocean lithosphere is lighter over the hotspot and it floats higher 23. Anange the compositional zones of the earth according to their respective density (densest to lightest). a. a. mantle, outer core, inner core, continental crust, ocean crust b. inner core, outer core, mantle, continental crust, ocean crust c. inner core, outer core, mantle, continental crust, ocean crust d. outer core, mantle, ocean cmst, continental crust, inner core .. @nner core, outer core, mantle, ocean crust, continental crust 24.. What kind of plate margin is represented by the Andes Mountains? a. divergent margin convergent margin (ocean-continental subduction) ., convergent margin (ocean-ocean subduction) d. transform margin e. collision margin (continent-continent) 25.. Meteorites are thought to be composed of C ? a. materials mainly comprising the sun . ~— b. materials very different from the original material comprising the Earth ©naterials that are similar in composition to those found in the solid earth d. mainly organic components e. mainly materials found only in continental crust 26‘, Which zone of the earth is also described as the “low velocity zone?” a. outer core inner core sthenosphere d. lithosphere e. mesosphere 27. The melting temperature of Q must be reached in order for the earth to become compositionally zone: a. silicon b. Fe-Mg silicate minerals @atamc Fe and Ni i. water e.. crustal rocks 29. Transform plate boundaries are typically associated with C ., a. convergent margins where the descending piates slows down during subduction b. convergent margins where the descending plates speeds up during subduction @divergent margins where the rate of spreading is different along segments of the spreading ridge ' > d. divergent margins where the rate of spreading is the same along segments of the spreading ndge e.. none of the above answers are correct. 32. What is the significance of the change in direction of the Hawaiian island chain and the Emperor’Seamount hain? the tectonic plate on which both island chains sit changed directions . each island chain formed from two different hot spots. c. a single hot spot moved beneath the tectonic plate \ d. the Hawaiian islands formed over a hot spot volcanism While Emperor Seamounts are part of a mid-ocean spreading ridge e. none of the above answers are correct 33. Which tectonic margin would tend to have deep and shallow focused earthquakes? 4 g a. divergent b. transform @onvergent . all of the above answers are correct e. only answers a and b are correct 3:15. S—waves 0x @are absorbed bi. decelerate c., accelerate (1. reverse e. rebound 45,. Why is there a low velocity zone for seismic waves entering the asthenosphere? 0‘ a. the asthenosphere is considerably less dense than the overlying continental crust b” the asthenosphere is considerably more dense than the underlying continental crust“ c. there is not a low velocity zone in the asthenosphere @the asthenosphere is a partiai melt and seismic wave decelerate as they enter the phase ange er. none of the above are the correct answer as they travel through the outer core. @4537 0( E58 101 Midterm Winter 2007 Name Stadent#: VERSION B Provide the Mt answer for the following multiple—choice questions. There are 49 regular test questions and five bonus questions. The bonus questions can only help your score. Circle the correct answer on your test paper and hand it in along with your scamron form. The figure on the left shows the olivine mineral structure. Answer questions l~2 about the olivine . mineral structure. l. The Silicon (Si): Oxygen (0) ratio in the olivine crystal structure is _____________. ’ 12.5 c (a) 12.75 c. 1:2 2. Valencies within the silicate tenahedra of the olivine structure are satisfied ....... .___~. by covalent bends be ecu d. all of the above answers are correct e. none of the above answers are correct 3. Van der waal bonds form _ _. ,3?” on are transferred when electrons lbhetween atoms with valencies . when electrons are loosely held and move betWeen atoms e. none of the above are correct answers 4. Why do the large Jovian planets have molecular hydrogen in their atmospheres, but the smaller terrestrial planets M . , ; a _ sh. terrestrial planets have a latg component of molecular hydrogen in their interiors. c. The Jovian planets do not have molecular hydrogen in their respective atmospheres. d. all of the above answers are correct. e. none of the above answers are correct 5. Metallic bonds form . ,. A? when electrons are transferred between atoms with valenices. )1 when electrons are preferentially aligned to one side of an atom resulting in a weak negative charge ,e.‘ when electrons are shared between atoms with valencies 6' d. when electrons are 1003er held and move between atoms e. none of the above are correct answers c. peridotite (>90% olivine) d. basalt e andesite ’7, Pahoehoe basalts . a; are blocky textured firms that form as the viscosity increases during degassing b. are blocky textured flows that form as the viscosity decreases during degassing ed fl that form as the viscosity increases during degassing asth r - the above answers are as “221" is not a reai worn in gemogxc 'vum‘enlafi 22? 8. I When two continental plates converge . I the younger plate will be snbducted 11/, the lighter plate will be snbducted wate will be subducted e. none of the above answe __._....._.._—.—._..—....__._.' 0. small magnetic mineral present in its crust d. the earth does not have a magnetic field e. none of the above are correct 10. What kind of plate margin exists today along the western margin of central California? a. divergent margin b. convergent margin (ocean—continental collision) margin (ocean—ocean collision) gm continent—confluent) 11. What type of volcanic rock would preserve gas bubbles during cooling. a. andestite b. volcanic tuff c. gimme 'di 12. Why does amphibole develop cleavage planes yet it has all its oxygen atoms shared between tetrahedra? a. this mineral does not cleave. I r. r a b. this mineral has a tetrahedral aluminum atom which requires additionalinnig bonds‘iVith sodium atoms this mineral is not a silicate mineral and consists of weak ionic bond between ‘4" ' be 0 o this figure. i’ granitic magma (wet melt) p no (as 1 uses) 0. does not change as pressure changes d. is not dependent upon the composition of the magma e. none of the above answers are correct 17. Granitic composition magma will not typically rise to the surface because a. of centrifugal forces c. 1ts melung temperature decreases With decreasing pressure and it will solidify at depth d. the melt is less dense than the surrounding rock e. the above question is incorrect because a granitic melt will typically rise to the surface at which the rising granitic magma solidifies __ b. 2035 km c. 35-45 km d. 100-350 km e. partial melting does not typically occur within the continental lithosphere 19. The temperature at which partial melting occurs in the continental lithosphere is a. 0-100"C d. e partial melting does not typically occur within the continental lithosphere 20. Where is basaltic magma not typically found? a. sea floor spreading zoneV 1). hot spot volcanism 1” c. continental collision boundary d. back we basin V5 e. continental rift zone a/ The figure shown on the left shows the melting temperature curve for a wet granitic. melt. Answer questions 16-19 using P c.‘ surface wave (1. P and S.wave e. all of the above anSWers are correct 23- Why 15035 theviépo‘gr'aphicieirifés'sién of the HéWaiian island become progressively lower from the Bi the island lying northwest? ' " i ‘ ‘~ I r a. the topographic expression of all the Hawaiian Islands is the sameX b. the ocean lithosphere is less dense to the northwest and it floats higher 6. 3 there is a subduction zone to the northwest drawing the ocean crust- downward d. the Big Island}! f tin ntal crust Within its interior tfloats higher V o ocean crust, continental crust, mantle, outer core, inner core inner core, outer core, mantle, continental crust, ocean cryst enter core, mantle, ocean crust, confinental crest, inner are ‘ inner core; outbi' core, mantle; ocean crust, continental 'cnist - e 25. What kind of tectonic setting was represented by Appalachian a. divergent margin b. . convergent margin (ocean-continental subduction) c. " convergent margin (ocean-ocean Subduetion) ‘U redominanfly. composed of Silicate minerals ___.____— b. y ogen c. carbon—based materials and iron-nickel d. only material found in the earth’s ‘core e. mainly materials found only in continental crust g Island to pecfive density (lightest to densest) Mountains in the eastern United States? 5 27. Why do seismic waves decelerate in the “low velocity zone.” a. it is composed of low density liquid iron . scrsmrcaaves do not slow down in the “low veiocity zone d. the low velocity zone represents a part of the earth’s mantle that has a unique composition e. there is no “low velocity zone” below the surface of the earthx . itscompositional zones heat was generated from c. only answers a and b are correct 4 flow do some“ geologists explainthe pw' . mi 1011 years ago that caused the uplrft of the Colorado Plateau c. a bolide impact occurred 27 million years ago that caused the rifting of Nevada and Utah d the Colorado Plateau has not been uplifted in recent geologic history, nor is Nevada and Utah rifting e. the causes of these two geologic events are unknown and no theories have been proposed 30. Transform plate boundaries are typically associated with . a. convergent margins where the descending plates slows down during subduction i‘ the spreading ridge c. the Columbia Plateau d. Himalaya Mountains e. the Hawaiian Islands 32. A shield volcano has a lower slope angle than a strato (composite) volcano because . its basaltic lava flows have hi her viscos'ti than th and c. the shield volcano is smaller than the strato volcano and cannot achieve the same slope angle d. it has more water content which lowers the melting temperature e. answers ‘0 and d are both correct " 33. What are the two most common elements comprising rocks of the crust and mantle. a. Iron (Fe) and Nickel (Ni) b. Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) 6 35. P—waves _f___ __ as they travel through the asthenosphere. 36. How can we best eXplain the fact that the inner and outer cores are both composed of metallic iron and nickel yet the outer core is liquid and the inner core solid? 3. the outer core is solid and the inner core is solid b. the melting temperature for iron-nickel is greater than the geothermal gradient temperature in the outer core g.” the meltin t rature for iron-nickel is the same as the geothermal 'ent temperature in the outer core. V’ ,, I a _ th aboth ’ _ core. fie: ' th actual temperature of the outer core is greater than the inner core's actual temperature. 37. How can mantle rocks be brought to the surface of the earth, such as in the Cascades or Fidalgo Island? a. they are brought to the surface along mantle plumes (hot spots) b they are brought to the surface in magma bodies related to su d. all of the above answers are correct e. none of the above answers are correct 38-40. Use the rock~composition diagram shown below to answer questions 38 100 :13 . 80 60 4077', Percent by volume 20: Phanerific rock Aphauitic rock : Composition type (Am '38. An aphanitic (voicanic) rock composed of 5% quartz, UU‘IO pla be classified as __ ,. 39. A phaneritic (platonic) rock composed of predominantly quartz, potassium feldspar, sodimn—rich plagioclase, muscovite and amphibole would be classified as _~ . a. basalt b. diorite c. gabbro d. rhyolite _pyroxene. 4143. Magma is being erupted from a hotspot. 41. What type of magma is largely produced at this setting? a granite b. obsidian c. audesite d. pumice 4.2. This type of tectonic setting can be found ____ ? a. only beneath ocean basins b. only beneath continents 43. What is the main source of the erupted lava? partial melting of the continental crust d. mantle plumes O - 6. none of the above are correct 44. As magma crystallizes into igneous rock the residual melt ______, a. will become more mafic (Feqich) b. will be come more felsic (silica-tick) c. will yield more explosive eruptions d answers a and c are both correct 45. Strato volcanoes are largely composed of __ a. pyroclastic flows 1). lava flows . 0 s1 tan ows e. none of the above answers are correct Lab Questions 46. In lab you completed a cross-section of a glaciated and unglaciated valley in __ a. Mt. Rainier National Park b. Olympic National Park 1 d fl Yellow3tone National Park 47. How did the age of the Hawaiian Islands related to the age of each island was ' ‘ distance from the hotspot? fr til hots 0t. c. the ageof-‘eachvrs ec th greater distance from the ho d. the age of each island increased with greater from the hotspot and then decreased at the bend e. none of the above answers are correct 48. In the minerals lab the main diagnostic criteria for identifying the metallic mineral hematite was lllll _. a. its reaction with HCl acid b. its cubic cleavage c. its reddish-brown streak on a porcelain plate d. its gold color e. answers and a and b were both properties observed for hematite 49. In the igneous rock lab we observed the volcanic rocks from _______,___,_ and ______ __ . a. Yellowstone Park, Mt. Rainier ’0. Iceland, Columbia Plateau c. Hawaii, Mt. Rainier d. Mt. St. Helena e. Mt. Baker, Mt. Rainier Bonus Questions (There are five bonus questions #50-54) 50. In a Friday January 26?“, Terry noted _______ students wearing touques (wool-like caps). a. 0 b. l c. 3 d. 5 e. 7 51. On Monday January 22"“ Terry _______________. a. were a new red vest for first time b. unzipped his vest C. were a shirt instead of a vest for a change (1. had to use his old slides because the podium computer malfunctioned e. wore his work-out shorts because 52. On February 2mj Terry, . a let the class out of class five minutes early sachets to run through Kane Hall ‘0, allow c. allowed students to sing a rock song as a d. showed his silly putty viscosity experiment e. none of the above events occurred 53. During the first lecture of the quarter Terry his locker was broken into at the MA to demonstrate visaosity fraternity prank at the start of lecture oi" stage because the left side had no plastic because the right side had no plastic how his powerpoint presentation a. had to use the overhead projector on the right side b. had to use the overhead projector on the left side of stage c. had to use old slides because the computer was down and he could not s d. could not use the overhead because the bulb was burned out e. none of the events occurred during the first lecture of the quarter 54. Where are a. Meteor Crater, Arizona b. Pacific Ocean basin c. Antarctica d. Greenland meteorites most often collected for study related to the earth’s early history? ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2011 for the course GEO 101 taught by Professor Swanson during the Spring '11 term at University of Washington.

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Geology 101 - Multiple Choice Questions_ - @Oi637 /Of 4...

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