Cell Biology - Human Anatomy and Physiology 1110 Cell...

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Unformatted text preview: Human Anatomy and Physiology 1110 Cell Biology and Genetics Cell Biology and Genetics Cell Biology and Genetics : Learning Objectives Learning Objectives 1. Relate plasma membrane structure to active and passive transport mechanisms. 2. Define membrane potential and explain how the resting membrane potential is maintained. 3. Describe the structure and function of organelles, including mitochondria, ribosomes, ER, and Golgi apparatus. 4. Describe the phases of the cell life cycle and the process of DNA replication. 5. Describe the role of DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA in each phase of protein synthesis. Structure and Function • Cell metabolism and energy use • Synthesis of molecules • Communication (electrical and chemical) • Reproduction and Inheritance (DNA) • Separation of intracellular vs. extracellular materials • Charge difference ( membrane potential ) across the membrane • Glycocalyx : glycolipids and glycoproteins on outer surface Cell Biology and Genetics Plasma Membrane • Phospholipid bilayer: Polar heads and nonpolar tails • Cholesterol : determines fluidity • Fluidity : molecule redistribution and automatic reassembly Cell Biology and Genetics Membrane Lipids • Integral (intrinsic) or Peripheral (extrinsic) • Glycoproteins and glycolipids : cell recognition – Immunity, intercellular communication • Attachment Proteins : attachment and comunication – Cadherins and Integrins Cell Biology and Genetics Membrane Proteins • Nongated ion channels : always open – Responsible for the permeability of the plasma membrane to ions at rest • Gated ion channels can be opened or closed by certain stimuli – Ligand gated ion channel: open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins – Voltage-gated ion channel: open when there is a change in charge across the plasma membrane Cell Biology and Genetics Transport Proteins: Channel Proteins • Carrier Proteins (transporters) – Specific binding site – Change shape to move bound ion or molecule – Resume original shape • Uniporters – one particle • Symporters – two particles/same direction • Antiporters – two particles/opposite directions Cell Biology and Genetics : Transport Proteins: Carrier Proteins •...
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Cell Biology - Human Anatomy and Physiology 1110 Cell...

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