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2303_-_Spr_2011_-_Week_10_-_Quantum_Physics_-_E

2303_-_Spr_2011_-_Week_10_-_Quantum_Physics_-_E - Week 10.1...

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1 Week 10.1 General Relativity HW Review Equivalence Principle Perihelion of Mercury Bending of Starlight (Skip 39.7) EG The sun in UV SOHO Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope 171 Å image, NASA
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2 General Relativity General Relativity is an extension of special relativity to include Gravity and acceleration. The Equivalence Principle states: A homogeneous gravitational field is completely equivalent to a uniformly accelerated reference frame. Inertial mass and gravitational mass are equivalent. EG
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3 General Relativity Consider a shuttle in orbit around earth. Here is an astronaut with a water bubble floating. EG mg What forces are acting on shuttle? Is shuttle accelerating?
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4 General Relativity Demonstrator Principal of equivalence demonstrator given to Einstein on his 76th birthday by E.M. Rogers. Put the hanging brass ball into the cup by a technique that always works. The weak spring is stretched even when the ball is in the cup. EG
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5 Predictions of General Relativity EG Perihelion of Mercury In his first paper on general relativity, in 1916, Einstein was able to explain a discrepancy of long-standing between the measured and classically expected values of the advance of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit, which is observed to be 43 arc sec / century. This was the first success of the new theory. Advance of the perihelion due to general relativity in radians per orbit
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6 Deflection of light in a gravitational field: From the equivalence principle : Since the presence of a gravitational field is equivalent to being in an accelerating reference frame: EG
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7 Bending of Starlight EG For a beam just grazing the sun: When starlight passes a massive object like a star, the total angular deflection is found to be:
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8 Bending of Starlight EG Sean M. Carroll This prediction led to expeditions to Sobral (South America) and Principe Island (Africa) to measure the bending of starlight during the eclipse of 1919.
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9 Click to edit Master subtitle style Week 10.2 Quiz 3
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10 10.3 Relativity & Quantum Physics Michael W. McClure, EG Relativity Ø Energy Mass Conversion Ø Gravitational Lensing Ø Black Holes Quantum Physics Ø Photoelectric effect
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11 Energy Mass Conversion Wikipedia, EG
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12 Gravitational Lensing EG This bending of light means that a very massive object can act as a gravitational lens! By using a distant galaxy or galaxy cluster as a lens, even more distant galaxies can be observed.
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13 Gravitational Lensing EG Five young blue, loop-shaped objects: multiple images of the same galaxy. Lensed by the total mass of the cluster of yellow, elliptical and spiral galaxies near the image's centre (includes dark matter). Galaxy cluster is ~ 2 x 109 ly Imaged galaxies may be at 10 x 109 ly.
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14 Gravitational Red shift General Relativity also predicts a Gravitational red shift.
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