Notes #2 - 18:54 Human brain develops before and after (1/4...

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18:54 Human brain develops before and after (1/4 before birth) Non human primates most occurs either before or immediately after Social brain complex-larger brains developed because of living in social groups Likely to not be the sole cause Language is distinctly human trait because of displacement Consists of arbitrary symbols Humans actively show how to do something Certain behaviors are group specific 8 criteria for cultural behavior 1) innovation 2) dissemination 3) standardization 4) durability 5) diffusion 6) tradition 7) non-subsistence 8) naturalness chimps meet first six, sometimes accomplish last two, but are no where near human cultural level aggression first appears when competing for resources altruism (killing young lusty male or genes) reciprocal altruism anthropocentric-putting them in terms of human behavior the gods must be crazy
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Primate Fossils 18:54 common for conflicting views
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Primate Fossils 18:54 most interested in plesiadapis and carpolestes 65 MYA dinosaurs go extinct 55.8 MYA start seeing early mammals in Europe and Africa Eocene primates are divided into adapoidea Adapoids are most like lemurs Dental formula for adapoidea 2143 Modern lemurs retain extremely ancestral traits-therefore not in primate order Hominoids-divided into 3 families-north America, asia, Europe Europeans most resemble living tarsiers Similarities are in the dental formula 1133 Have very large eye orbits and small snouts Probably diverged around 23 mya in Miocene Earliest is from middle Eocene in Africa Claim that true anthropoids come up in Oligocene *Aegyptopithecus controversial still has small brain, long snout, but generalized enough that its thought to be close enough to ancestry of both old world monkeys and hominoids probably arboreal and ate fruit-thin enamel of teeth
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Primate Fossils 18:54 has both ape and monkey characteristics brain is almost in different compartment from the face dental formula of 2123 lower morals have 5 cusps foramen magnum-it was a quadruped-limbs are same length had a tail and belonged to propliopithecid based on platarrhines-nostrils face outward appeared about 10 mya Miocene -see monkeys and apes forming major diversification-earliest evidence of today’s modern primate- Last common ancestor of all old world monkeys Superfamily Proconsuloidea -like monkeys, but don’t have a tail -according to cranium, they are dental apes -range in size from 20-220 lbs hominoids are considered true apes-date from 16 MYA from Africa possibly a knuckle walker
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Primate Fossils 18:54 pithecus-greek for ape like best of early hominoids went through adaptive radiation sivapitchecus are pretty well known and are similar to orangutan giganpithecus- thought to have decscneded from sivapithecus went extinct 200,000 years ago-it was 10ft tall probably a fist walker and weighed about 900 lbs Hominoids Today -hylobatidids-gibbons and salanges thought that they split from great ape lineage 15-18 mya Great apes Pongids-gap in fossil record between 13-9.5 mya
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Notes #2 - 18:54 Human brain develops before and after (1/4...

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