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Counter-Terrorism Law and Practice: An International Handbook

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Unformatted text preview: . . . . : Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights United Nations Office at Geneva 814, Avenue de la Paix CH1211 Geneva 10 Switzerland New York Office: Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights United Nations New York, NY 10017 United States of America Printed at United Nations, Geneva GE.08-41870January 20093,580 ISSN 1014-5583 ( ) : - .http://www.ohchr.org . * 74 :* ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) : ( ( ( ) ) ) : 73 . . * * * : ( ) * ( ) . .( ) ** . .( .www.un.org/terrorism : * * * . / - DPI/2439B/Rev.2 - ) 72 . . . . . . . . . . . 71 . . . . . . . . ( ) ** " ." . . . . . 70 .( ) . . . . . . . . . . . 69 . . . / (E/2006/28) . . . . / . : 68 . . . ( ) . . . . . . .( ) ( . / ) 67 ( ) . . .( . . . ) ( ) ** ) . . ( 66 . ( ) . . - . . - . . ( ) . . . . . / . . 65 ( ) .( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) . ( ( / ) ( / ) / ) . . ( . ) . . / . / . . . ( ( ) ( ) ) 64 . . . . . " : " . . . . ( ) . 63 : . : . : . : . : . : . . 62 . . . : / . : . : : . . 61 Sidiropoulos and " Others v. Greece, No 26695/95, Judgement of 10 July 1998 . .( . . . A/59/401 E/CN.4/2005/103 A/61/267 ( ) )" ( ( ( ( ) ) ) Coeriel et al. v. the Netherlands, 31 October 1994 (A/50/40 (vol. II), annex X, " " / .sect. ) D)) Amann v. Switzerland, No 27798/95, Judgement of 16 February 2000, and Rotaru v. .Romania, No 28341/95, Judgement of 4 May 2000 ( ) / ( ) . ( ) ( ) ( ) Aumeeruddy-Cziffra and Others v. Mauritius, 9 April 1981 (A/36/40, annex XIII, para. 9.2 .(b) 2 (i) 8) Klass v. Germany, No 5029/71, Judgement .of 6 September 1978, para, 50 ( ) A Development Co-operation Lens on Terrorist Prevention: Key Entry Points for Action, DAC ( ) .Guidelines and Reference Series (OECD, 2003), available at www.oecd.org 60 .http://www.un.org/law/terrorism/index.html . .( Handyside v. United E/CN.4/2006/98 ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) .Kingdom, No 5493/72, Judgement of 7 December 1976 .A/HRC/4/26/Add.3 ( ) " ) " .( ( ) ( ) / / / / .( " " :(E/CN.4/2006/95) " . ( ) ) / ... .( (( ) (( ) ." ) ) " (( ) ) )" .( - (( ) .(E/CN.4/2006/95 .A/61/267 ( ( ) ) A/59/401) ) ) 59 E/CN.4/2006/98 ( ) . - ( ) .( ) A/HRC/4/26 ( ) E/CN.4/2002/18 ( ( ( ( ) " " " .(CRI (2004) 26) " . ) ) ) " " . A/HRC/4/26 ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) - E/CN.4/2005/103 . - .( ) . ( ) / et al. E/CN.4/2005/103 ( ( ) / .( .(A/61/267) . A/HRC/4/88 ( ( ( ( ) ) E/CN.4/2006/98 E/CN.4/2005/103 . ) ) .Castillo Petruzzi et al. v. Peru (para. 121) 58 / - " " / ( .CDL/AD (2006) 009 ( ) / . / ") " ) ( .(( )-( ) rev. (A/HRC/4/88) " E/CN.4/2006/6 / A/60/44) .( " 03 rev / / ) A/62/40) ( ( . " ( : / ( . ( " ) AS/Jur (" ) SG/Inf .Op. cit ) ) / ( ( ) SG/Inf) " (2006 ) ( ( ) ) International Pen, Constitutional Rights Project, Interights on behalf of Ken Saro-Wiwa Jr. and Civil Liberties Organization v. Nigeria, .communications No 139/94, No 154/96 and No 161/97, para. 83 ( ) Digest of jurisprudence (chap. .( ) ( ) .(III, sect. K ( ) OC-18/03 . / 57 . ) A/61/40 ) " A/59/44) . .(( ) " ( ( ) ( : .(E/CN.4/2006/6) " .( . ": / " A/61/259) ( ( ( ) ) ) ... .( .( )" E/CN.4/2006/120) " . E/CN.4/2005/103 " ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ( ) Soering v. United Kingdom, No .14038/88, Judgement of 7 July 1989 Chahal v. United Kingdom, No 22414/93, Judgement of 15 November 1996, and Louise Arbour, "In our name and on our behalf"International and Comparative Law Quarterly, vol. 55, No 3 (July .(2006, p. 511 ) ( " ( ) 56 ( .( ) )" " ( ) INeira Alegria et al. v. Peru, Judgement of 19 .January 1995 (paras. 74-75) / ) .( / . ( ) Surez de Guerrero v. Colombia, 31 March 1982 (A/37/40, annex XI, paras. 12.2, 13.1-13.3) (A/CONF.144/28/Rev.1) ( / ) E/CN.4/2006/53 ( ) McCann v. United Kingdom, No 18984/91, Judgement of 27 .September 1995 .Prosecutor v. Furundzija, para. 144 ( ) " " .( / . " .( " ( ) . Rev OEA/Ser.L/V/II.106) ( ) ) ( ) ( . A/52/44) / ( ) " 55 . " " ." . . . . " : . Brannigan and Ireland (No 3), No 332/57,Judgement of July 1961, para. 28. NcBride v. United Kingdom, No 14553/89: No 14554/89, Judgement of 25 May 1993, contrast .with the dissenting opinion of Judge Walsh, para. 2 .( ) : " " . ( . . . ) ( / " ( ( ) A/58/40 " " ( ( ) ) E/CN.4/2006/53) .( . / / " E/CN.4/2006/53 A/HRC/4/26) ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ". / . .( - A/40/40) " 54 Further Alex Conte, : ( ) "The ICT project on human rights compliance when countering terrorism: a guide to legislators, policy-makers and the judiciary", in ISC 2005: Security, Terrorism and Privacy in .(Information Society; K. von Knop and others, eds. 92006) : E/CN.4/2005/103) " . " ( ) " (A/HCR/4/26/Add.3) " ( E/CN.4/2002/18 ... " ( )-( ) ( ) ( .( ) )" ( ( ) ) R. v. Oakes [1986] 1 SCR 103 .and R. v. Lucas [1998] 1 SCR 439, para. 118 . ( ) ". ." )" .( ) / ( ( . " : / OC-8/87 / / ) ) .( 53 ) .(OEA/Ser.L/V/II.116, Doc. 5 rev. 1.corr., para. 53) " / / (( ) () ) E/CN.4/2002/18) " ( ) . ( ) E/CN.4/2006/98) .( . . ( ) ( ) .( ( ( E/CN.4/Sub.2/2005/39) E/CN.4/1985/4) " " ... .( E/CN.4/2006/98) .( ) ( ) )" E/CN.4/2002/18 " ... ( ) () .( Lavigne v. ( ) )" " ( ) : Ontario Public Service Employees Union [1991] 2 SCR 211 and Figueroa v. Canada .(Attorney General) [2003] 1 SCR 912 52 "2. The offendr wilfully made the civilian population or individual civilians not taking part in hostilities the object of those acts of violence. "3. The above offence was committed with the primary purpose of spreading terror among the civilian population". ( ) Addressing security concerns without undermining refugee protecton - a UNHCR perspective" (November 2001); UNHCR, Ten refugee protection concerns in the aftermath of .September 11, press release, 23 October 2001 Guidelines on international ( ) protection: applicatrion of the exclusion clauses: article 1F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees" (HCR/GIP/03/05); UNHCR, "Background note on the application of the .exclusion clauses: article 1 F of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees" (2003) Note on the cancellation .of refugee status" (22 November 2004) . ... ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ( ) .Digest of Jurisprudence ... . ( ) / ( ) - ( ( . .( " ( E/CN.4/1985/4) " 51 : - E/CN.4/1985/4) ( ) : .www.icrc.org . ( ) ."... .( ) ": . . " ... .( ) ( ... ... " / ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ." / Digest of jurisprudence E/CN.4/2006/87) " of the United Nations and regional organizations on the protection of human rights while .countering terrorism (New York and Geneva, 2003), chap. I, sect. (C) Legislative Guide to the Universal Anti-Terrorism .Conventions and Protocols (United Nations publication, Sales No E.04.V.7) Christopher Greenwood, "International Law and the 'War against ( ( ) ) Terrorism'", International Affairs, vol. 78, No 2 (April 2002), p. 301. In 2001, the then United Nations High Commissoner for Human Rights described the terrorist attacks which occurred .in the United States on 11 September 2001 as a crime against humanity International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Prosecutor v. ( ) Gali , Case IT-98-29, Judgement of 5 December 2003. the Tribunal added the following .specific elements (para. 133): "1. Acts of violence directed against the civilian population or individual civilians not taking direct part in hostilities causing death or serious injury to body or health within the civilian population 50 .( .( ( / / / ) ) ) / / ( ) Manfred Nowak, U.N. Covenant on Civil and Poitical Rights: CCPR .Commentary, 2nd rev. ed. (N.P. Engel, 2005), p. 121 / ( ) Luis Asdrubal Jimne Vaca v. Colombia, 25 March 2002 (A/57/40 (vol. II), annex IX, sect. W, : ( ) .para. 7.3 " " ( ) (E/CN.4/2005/102/Add.1) .Delgado Pez v. Colombia, 12 July 1990 (A/45/40/ (vol. II), annex IX, sect. D / .Velsquez Rodriguez, para. 174 : " . . .( . )" ( )R : ( ( ) ) ( ( ) ) 28 March 2000, para. 62. Kili v. Turkey, No 22492/93, Judgement of . Jean-Marie Henckaerts and Louise Doswald-Beck, eds., Customary International Humanitarian Law (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2005) . 49 ( . . ( ) ( / ( ) ( ) ( ) . .( ) - It ) ( ) . ( ) / ( ) ( ) . ( / . . ) . - ) . / / . ( ) .( .coard et al. v. United States, Case 10.951, Report No 109/99, 29 September 1999, para. 37 ) ( ) ( / ) : ( ) ( ) .(E.05.I.5 / / / / 48 . . . ( ) . " .( ) . . " . . . . . ) 47 ( . . . ) ": : ` ` ` ` ." " ` ` . . : . . . 46 . .( ) . . ) . ( . . . .( ) . . ( ) . . .( ) . . 45 . .( ) . " . ." . . .( " .( )" . .( ) ) 44 ( ) . . ( )" " . . .( ) .( .( ) ) . . . . .( ) 43 ( ) ( ) . .( . . ) ( ) . ..." .( ) : " .( . ) " ... .(" . ..." . " .("... " ("... ...") ... ( ) 42 . . . ( -) .( ) . . . " ( ) ( . ) ." . . . 41 " . . ." .( . ( " . . . " ) ) : . 40 .( ) . . . .( ) . . ( ) . . . .( ) 39 - . .( ) .( ) / . . . . . .( ) . 38 . . . ( ) . . .( ( ) . .( )" .( .( )" .( ) ) ) " . " . 37 . : ) ) ( ( ) ( .( ) . . . . .( ) .( .( )" ) " 36 . (non-refoulement) . . . . . . . .( ) / . .( ) . 35 . " .( )(non-refoulement) " " ... ." ( ) ) . (non-refoulement) .( ) ( . .( ) . . .(non-refoulement) 34 . . . / . . . . . / (non-refoulement) ( ) . .( 33 ) .( ) . . .( ) - ."( ( ) ) .( ) . . . .( . . ) 32 . . " . ( ) . . ` " . ( )" " ' " .( . ) .( ) ( ) . .( ) .( ) .( ) . 31 " " .( " .( ) ) " . .( ) ` . ` . . " ` ` ." ` ` " ." . " .( ) ( ) " ... ... " . 30 . . ( ) . . ) . . ( ( ) . . . . " " . " " . . 29 . . . . . ( . . ) " ( ) . . .( " . ) " ." ( ) " ( ) . ( ) ." 28 . () ( ) . . . ... " . ( ) . " . " ( ) " " : ( . .( ) ) 27 . " " . . .( ) . .( ) . . . .( ) . . . . 26 . .( ) ( ) . : .( ) () . : . . . ( ) . . ( ) . . 25 . . .( ) ( ) . . ( ) . . .( ) .( " . . " ) ( ) . . . 24 . . . . . . - . ( ) . ." " () ( ) () : .( ) .( ) 23 ( ) . . ( ) . . .( ) (S/2005/800) ( ) ) " " ) ( .( . ) ( . . . . 22 " . .( ) : " (A/60/825) . . . . / . .( ) . 21 ) . ( . . . . / . .( ) . . ( ) " ." .( ) 20 . . ( ) . .( ) . . . / . . ( 19 ) . . (non-refoulement) . (non-refoulement) ( ) . ( ) . . . . .( ) . . . . 18 " " .( . " ) () " . () . . . ( ) () ( )( ) . () (non-refoulement) . . . 17 .( ) . . . . ( . .(( ) ) .(( ) . . ) (( ) ) ) . 16 " ( " ) . . . / . . " " . ( ) . . . 15 .( ) . . . (" " ) . ) . . ( ) ( ." . . 14 / " " " " " . " .( " . ( )" ) ( ) ." " . . : . . . [ ] (spheres) " . ( )" " .( )" "lex specialis" 13 " . . .( . . . ) . " .( ) " " . . . . . 12 : . . / . . . . 11 ." . . " . . . .( ) . " / ." " " ." ." 10 . .( ( ) ( ) ) . . . . . . / . ( / ) . " ." 9 . . . " ( ) . ( ) " .( . ) 8 ( ) ." . . . . : . . . . . .( ) : 7 . . " ." ( ) " / " " " ." " " . ( )( . " () ) " ( ) " 6 . . . ( ) . . .( ) . . ( ) " ." .( ) . . . 5 . . ( ) ) ( . ) ( . .( ) . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . ( ) . . . . . / 3 . . . . . . . . : . 2 / . . . . . . . . . .(non-refoulement) . . 1 . 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