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Counter-Terrorism Law and Practice: An International Handbook

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NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited “PROBABLE CAUSE” FOR MARITIME INTERDICTIONS INVOLVING ILLICIT RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS by Ioannis Kizanis December 2008 Thesis Co-Advisors: Craig F. Smith James C. Moltz
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i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2008 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: “Probable Cause” for Maritime Interdictions Involving Illicit Radioactive Materials 6. AUTHOR(S) Ioannis Kizanis 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) N/A 10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Existing international frameworks that govern maritime interdiction entitle the boarding of a vessel in international waters only if justified by reasonable grounds to suspect that the vessel is engaged in illicit activity, a legal concept similar to the U.S. principle of “probable cause.” Given recent advances in radiation detection technology, this thesis considers how this concept could be strengthened by the use of detectors for maritime interdiction of illicit radioactive materials, a problem that spans both policy and technical issues. To address this problem, the thesis incorporates analysis of both legal and technical factors related to detection of illicit radioactive materials. It includes a comprehensive compilation and examination of the legal and institutional issues related to probable cause determination, as well as technical evaluations of a state-of-the-art remote radiation detection system known as the Adaptable Radiation Area Monitor (ARAM) to determine its suitability in supporting probable cause determinations in a maritime environment. Based on these technical evaluations and an understanding of the legal
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بروتوكول Ø&mi

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