anatomy 1 notes - DESCRIBE THE SOURCE AND FLOW OF LYMPH |...

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DESCRIBE THE SOURCE AND FLOW OF LYMPH. | SOURCE: 10% of interstitial fluid a day enters the lymphatic capillaries becoming lymph.FLOW: Interstitial fluid - lymphatic capillaries - lymphatic vessels (containing one way valves) - lymph nodes - lymphatic trunks - to 2 lymphatic ducts (right lymphatic duct (which receives the lymph from the right arm, right side of head and thorax) and thoracic (which receives lymph from the rest of the body)) - subclavian veins - blood | DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION, STRUCTURE AND LOCATION OF LYMPH NODES. | FUNCTION: Filter bacteria and other foreign materials out of lymph and expose them to lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce lymphocytes and antibodies, to be carried by lymph throughout the lymphatic system.STRUCTURE: Bean shaped structures, around 1 cm long; surrounded by connective tissue. They are composed of a framework of supportive connective tissue and functional tissue largely made of macrophages and lymphocytes.LOCATION: located along the lymphatic vessels; scattered throughout the body, but more concentrated on the neck, armpits, groin and abdominal cavity. | WHAT ARE ANTIBODIES AND WHAT ARE THEIR ACTIONS IN REGARD TO IMMUNE RESPONSE? | WHAT ARE THEY?Structurally, antibodies are complex proteins that belong to the class of globulins, known as immunoglobulins. They are produced by a kind of white blood cell known as a plasma cell. Five different antibody isotopes are known, and they produce appropriate and different immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.WHAT ARE THEIR ACTIONS? Antibodies contribute to immunity in two main ways:- They prevent pathogens from entering or damaging cells by binding to them and immobilising them.- They stimulate the removal of the pathogen by macrophages and other cells by coating them. Phagocytes will readily phagocytose a particle that is coated with antibodies and break it down. | EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF PHAGOCYTOSIS AND NATURAL KILLER CELLS DEFENSIVE ACTIONS. | PHAGOCYTOSIS PROCESS: - Phagocyte adheres to pathogens or debris by recognising the carbohydrates on the surface of the pathogen.- The phagocyte forms pseudo pods that eventually engulf the particles forming a phagosome. - Lysosome fuses with the phagocyte vesicle, forming a phagolysosome.- Lysosomal enzymes digest the particles, sometimes leaving a residual body inside the cell.- Exocytose of the vesicle removes indigestible and residual material.NATURAL KILLER CELLS DEFENSIVE ACTIONS:- NKC releases perforins, which polymerise and form a hole in the enemy cell membrane.- Granzymes from NKC enter the hole and trigger the process of apoptosis (self destruction)- Enemy cell dies by apoptosis.- Macrophage engulfs and digests the dead cell. | LIST 2 TYPES OF T LYMPHOCYTES AND STATE THEIR ROLES IN THE IMMUNE RESPONSE.*Originate in the bone marrow, mature in the thymus, and travel in the blood.*MHC: (Major Histocompatibility Complex) proteins - Molecules found on outer plasma membrane of all cells; help the immune system distinguish self from nonself. T-cells will only recognise antigens when combined with these proteins.
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