BIOLOGY 2 OUTLINE OF MIDTERM 1

BIOLOGY 2 OUTLINE OF MIDTERM 1 - BIOLOGY 2 OUTLINE OF...

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BIOLOGY 2 OUTLINE OF MIDTERM 1 Lecture 1 Animal Physiology 1. Organization Tissues, Organs and Organ Systems a. Advantages of being large i. Increased efficiency w/ special functions ii. Defense b. Disadvantages of being large i. Transport requirements access to nutrients/heat regulation ii. Physical Support supporting one’s own weight 2. Animal Structure a. Tissue Types i. Epithelial – inner and outer lining of organs functioning as protective barrier 1. 3 types – columnar, cuboidal, squamous ii. Connective – structural support blood, cartilage, bones, fat, plasma iii. Muscle 1. 3 types – cardiac, smooth, and skeletal iv. Nervous – axons and such b. 3. Nervous System a. Cell types glia 10x more than neurons b. Electrical signaling
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i. Action Potential – Long distance, fast, brief, positive feedback loop, all or none ii. Post Synaptic Potential – faster than AP, long duration, graded iii. Generator Potentials – Induced by sensory neurons c. Central Nervous System i. Brain and Spinal Cord 1. White matter – schwann cells (inside of brain vis a vis for spinal cord) 2. Gray matter – site of information processing (outside of brain vis a vis) d. Peripheral Nervous System read? i. Sensory afferent ii. Motor efferent iii. Autonomic involuntary 1. Parasympathetic 2. Sympathetic 3. Enteric – gut e. Potentials (measure of diff. of in and outside)and Nernst Equation (monovalent cations) i. Potential equilibrium caused by diffusional force = electrical force ( Fick’s law) f. Action Potentials propagation i. Initiation- influx of Na+ via positive feedback to threshold ~ -55mV ii. Na+ Channels – inactivated after activation absolute refractory period Ena =~+50mV (very fast)
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iii. K+ Channels – deactivates and activates slowly
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2011 for the course BILD 2 taught by Professor Bg during the Spring '11 term at Arizona.

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BIOLOGY 2 OUTLINE OF MIDTERM 1 - BIOLOGY 2 OUTLINE OF...

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