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genetics outline normal part 2

genetics outline normal part 2 - d Nondisjunction –...

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a. Substitution- (example) GC is substituted for with AT i. Transition ii. Transversion b. Deletion – block of DNA is removed c. Insertion- block of DNA is inserted d. Inversion- Section of DNA is inverted 180 degrees e. Reciprocal translocation- 2 chromosomes split and switch halfs 2. Frameshift Mutations a. Deletion of addition of nucleotides causes the reading frame of a DNA strand to shift such that nucleotides downstream are changed by mutation (DNA read in sets of 3) 3. Point Mutations- Substitution of one allele [temp. sens? For missense] a. Missense- type of substitution that causes impairment or alteration of protein function b. Silent – type of substitution that is a polymorph c. Nonsense – type of substitution that causes truncation(formation of a stop codon) 4. More on mutations a. mutation rates vary for genes and organisms b. DNA polymerase, mismatch repair, and nucleotide excision prevent mutation c. EMS(Ethylmethan Sulfonate) and UV light inhibit mutation
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Unformatted text preview: d. Nondisjunction – uneven splitting of chromosomes during anaphaseI or II (more later) 5. Dominance-a. Codominance- Both alleles are expressed in a gene (i.e. stripes) b. Semi/incomplete dominance- neither allele completely expressed in gene (i.e. blending) 6. Mutant alleles and their properties (refer to the chart prof. gave) 7. Pedigree Analysis a. Recessive- Progeny is affected & parent is not affected i. X-linked 1. Daugher- X always comes one from each parent 2. Son – X from mom and Y from dad 3. Rare trait- assume outsider is homozygous for normal trait b. Dominant- progeny and a parent is affected i. X-linked 1. Mother passes trait on to all progeny 2. Father passes on only to daughter 8. Maternal Inheritance( very similar to Dominant X-linked except w/ the father not passing it on) a. Females pass trait on to all progeny b. Males never pass on trait 9. Disjunction(read)...
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