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bild2_5 - Fig. 49-13: The human cerebrum viewed from the...

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Unformatted text preview: Fig. 49-13: The human cerebrum viewed from the rear Left cerebral hemisphere Corpus callosum Cerebral cortex Right cerebral hemisphere Thalamus Basal nuclei Fig. 49-15: The human cerebral cortex Frontal lobe co rte x Parietal lobe So ma tos en so ry Mo tor cor tex Frontal association area Speech Speech Somatosensory association area Reading Taste Hearing Smell Auditory association area Visual association area Vision Temporal lobe Occipital lobe Fig. 49-16: Body representations in the primary motor and primary somatosensory cortices Frontal lobe Parietal lobe rm er a Upp ow Elb der Shoul Trunk Hip Trunk Head Knee ow Elb m ear For ist Wr Neck Leg Hip rm rea Fo nd s Ha er ng b Fi um Th nd Ha s er ng Fi b um Th Nec Bro k w Eye Ey e No se Fa ce Li ps Face Toes Teeth Gums Jaw Tongue Genitals Lips Jaw Tongue Pharynx Primary motor cortex Primary somatosensory cortex Abdominal organs Fig. 49-17: Mapping language areas in the cerebral cortex Max Hearing words Seeing words Min Speaking words Generating words Fig. 49-18: The limbic system Thalamus Hypothalamus Prefrontal cortex Olfactory bulb Amygdala Hippocampus Fig. 49-19: Neural Plasticity N1 N1 N2 N2 (a) Synapses are strengthened or weakened in response to activity. (b) If two synapses are often active at the same time, the strength of the postsynaptic response may increase at both synapses. Fig. 49-20a: Long-Term Potentiation Ca2+ Na+ Glutamate Mg2+ NMDA receptor (open) Stored AMPA receptor NMDA receptor (closed) (a) Synapse prior to long-term potentiation (LTP) Fig. 49-20b: Long-Term Potentiation 1 3 2 (b) Establishing LTP Fig. 49-20c: Long-Term Potentiation 3 4 1 2 (c) Synapse exhibiting LTP Fig. 49-22: Addiction & the Reward Center Nicotine stimulates dopaminereleasing VTA neuron. Opium and heroin decrease activity of inhibitory neuron. Cocaine and amphetamines block removal of dopamine. Cerebral neuron of reward pathway Reward system response ...
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bild2_5 - Fig. 49-13: The human cerebrum viewed from the...

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