61.%20Igneous%20Rocks

61.%20Igneous%20Rocks - Igneous Rocks Lecture 6 Igneous =...

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Unformatted text preview: Igneous Rocks Lecture 6 Igneous = From Fire Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 1 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Igneous Process Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 2 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Bowen’s Reaction Series Note the ingrown crystals (arrows) Note the “eroded” crystals (arrows) Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 3 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Intrusive Igneous Environments Intrusive Igneous Rocks Coarse Crystalline = Slow Cooling Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 4 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Evidence of Igneous Intrusions Yellowstone National Park Exposed Intrusive Igneous Rocks Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 5 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Inclusion: Host rock included within the igneous rock Granite Slow cooling = coarse crystals Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 6 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Diorite Gabbro Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 7 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Extrusive Igneous Environments Extrusive Igneous Rocks Continental Hawaiian/Oceanic Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 8 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Continental Volcanics Mt. Saint Helens Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 9 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Impact Ancient Mt. Saint Helens Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 10 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Hawaiian/Oceanic Iron Rich Non-explosive Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 11 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 12 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Rhyolite Rapid Cooling = Fine Crystal Size Andesite Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 13 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Basalt Classification of Igneous Rocks Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 14 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Engineering Properties Intrusive Igneous High to Very High Strength High Elastic-Plastic Deformation Elastic Because Interlocking high strength Interlocking crystals No pore space between No crystals Progressive failure related to Progressive variable mineral strength Engineering Properties Massive Extrusive Igneous Low to Very High Strength Low Pure Elastic Deformation Pure Because Because Interlocking high strength Interlocking micro-crystals microNo pore space No Uniform mixture of microUniform microcrystals creates general failure Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 15 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Engineering Properties Very Low to Medium Very Strength Elastic, Plastic-Elastic, Elastic, Plastic-Elastic-Plastic Deformation Because Porous, Low Density Extrusive Igneous Pore wall failure = plastic Pore No pore wall failure = elastic No Elastic failure related to Elastic uniformity of rock Plastic failure related to pore Plastic wall failures Characteristics of Intrusive Igneous Rocks Regional and Predictable Regional Large Crystal Size, from Slow Cooling Large High to Very High Rock Strength High Elastic-Plastic Deformation Elastic Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 16 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Characteristics of Extrusive Igneous Rocks Localized and Unpredictable, controlled by flow Localized history Dominantly very fine crystal size with larger Dominantly crystals included Very Low to Very High Rock Strength Very Elastic, Plastic-Elastic, Plastic-Elastic-Plastic Elastic, Deformation depending upon rock properties Break Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks Page 17 of 17 Lecture 6: Igneous Rocks ...
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