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MUS 106 Exam 1 Study Guide

MUS 106 Exam 1 Study Guide - MUS 106 Chapter 1 Musical...

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MUS 106: Chapter 1 Musical Terms: Rhythm: the pattern of movement in time Harmony: the relationship of tines considered as they sound simultaneously (added under the melody) Melody: a coherent succession of pitches often improvised in jazz Improvisation: the creation of music in the course of the performance Synocopation: rhythmic attacks between the beats rather than on them Polyrhythmic: the simultaneous use of 2 or more rhythms at once Tempo: the speed at which the music is performed Texture: the general pattern of sound created by the element s of music The Jazz Ensemble: Instruments are often classified by the way the sound is made. Wind Instruments are the largest catergory of jazz instruments Another way to classify instruments is by their musical use o Ex: various kinds of solo instruments v. the more fixed type of rhythm section instruments Brass Instruments: Sound is made by vibrating lips in a cuplike mouthpiece Valves control the length of the tubing (pitch). Overblowing also contributes to the sound. The Trumpet is the most common: it has cylindrical tubing except for the bell. The cornet and the flugelhorn are conical. Trombone: uses a slide to change pitch. The slide allows for glissando or smear. Reed Instruments: Sound is created by a vibrating reed that is clamped to a mouthpiece & placed between the lips Jazz instruments use single reeds, which can vary in thickness (also double reeds) Sound can be varied by pressing the tongue on the reed, changing the lip & tongue pressure, flicking the tongue against the reed, or overblowing, which can result in multi-phonics (many sounds) Clarient: cylindreical, wooden, popular in New Orleans & swing jazz but declined in popularity since then Saxophone: alto, tenor, soprano (highest) & baritone (lowest) 4 varieties 1
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By 1930, the saxophone became one of the main instruments of American music (especially alto & tenor) Rhythm Section: Consists of instruments that provide harmony, bass & percussion o Ex: piano, drums bass (guitar, banjo, tuba) Harmony Instruments: Piano (most important because of its popularity & range), guitar, banjo, electric piano, organ & vibraphone More than one harmony instrument may be used. A very popular combination is guitar & piano. The most common rhythm section is bass, drums, & piano. Bass: Two functions: harmonic support, rhythmic foundation; usually played pizzicato in jazz The electric bass is sometimes used instead of the acoustic bass In early jazz, the tuba provided the bass Percussion: Originated from marching bands, where separate players played the bass drums, snare drums & cymbals The drum set uses the same drums with a foot peddle for the bass drum. The bass drum, the snare drum, and the hanging cymbals are all played by one person.
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MUS 106 Exam 1 Study Guide - MUS 106 Chapter 1 Musical...

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