MUS 106 Exam 2 Study Guide

MUS 106 Exam 2 Study Guide - MUS 106: Chapter 5 New York:...

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MUS 106: Chapter 5 New York: Although different urban areas are considered central to the development of jazz at different times (New Orleans, Chicago, Kansas City, Los Angeles), New York has remained central since the 1920s. There are three interlocking spheres of influence that can account for this: commercial, sociological, and musical. Commercial: • The entertainment infrastructure is based in New York. As jazz became more commercial, it needed access to this infrastructure Sociological: • New York was a magnet for immigrants. Contributors to jazz, if not African American, came from immigrant families, especially Jews, whose music contains pentatonic scales and improvisation, making it particularly compatible with jazz. Musical: • There were styles specific to New York, such as stride piano, and New York was receptive to modern developments in jazz (bebop, avant-garde), but the growth of big bands and swing and the simultaneous interest in social dancing during the 1920s and 1930s were the most significant contribution. When Ellington arrived in New York in 1923, he described New York as just like “Arabian Nights. 1920s Transformations: Prohibition • In 1920, Congress passed the Eighteenth Amendment, making the manufacture and selling of alcohol illegal. (It was repealed in 1932.) The result was a vast web of illegal drinking establishments usually controlled by organized crime. • Owners of these speakeasies competed by hiring the best entertainers they could afford, including jazz musicians. The demands for music were so high that only jazz musicians, who could improvise, could provide enough Dance Bands: In New York, jazz came into contact with and borrowed from many kinds of music: pop music (Tin Pan Alley), New Orleans jazz imitators, marching bands, and vaudeville blues singers It was also found in ballrooms and concert halls. Two figures, Art Hickman and Paul Whiteman, both from San Francisco, led this last process. 1
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Paul Whiteman (1890- 1967): A Short Lived Monarchy: The first pop superstar, he was called the “King of Jazz” during the 1920s. Whiteman embodied the issue of the definition of jazz: was it an improvised, raucous music and an art in itself, or a quasi-symphonic music in which jazz was used only as a source for other music? Born in Denver, he studied viola, played with the Denver Symphony Orchestra, and then moved to San Francisco, where he played with the symphony orchestra and started his own ragtime band. In 1919 he started a ballroom band, which was very successful in Los Angeles, Atlantic City, and New York, at the high-end Palais Royal. Symphonic Jazz:
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2011 for the course MUS 106 taught by Professor Markberney during the Spring '09 term at Rhode Island.

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MUS 106 Exam 2 Study Guide - MUS 106: Chapter 5 New York:...

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