Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Quantum Numbers What is the maximum number of...

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1 Quantum Numbers What is the maximum number of electrons in an atom that can be found in an electron shell having a principal quantum number n = 4? a) 4 b) 8 c) 18 d) 32
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2 Quantum Numbers How many electrons in an atom can exist having quantum numbers n = 2 and l = 2? a) 0 b) 6 c) 10 d) 14
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3 Quantum Numbers How many electrons in an atom can have the combination of quantum numbers n = 2 and l = 1? a) 1 b) 2 c) 6 d) 8
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4 CHAPTER 5 Chemical Periodicity
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5 Chapter Goals 1. More About the Periodic Table Periodic Properties of the Elements 1. Atomic Radii 2. Ionization Energy 3. Electron Affinity 4. Ionic Radii 5. Electronegativity
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6 Chapter Goals Chemical Reactions and Periodicity 1. Hydrogen Reactions of Hydrogen and the Hydrides 1. Oxygen and Ozone Reactions of Oxygen and the Oxides Combustion Reactions Combustion of Fossil Fuels and Air Pollution
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7 More About the Periodic Table Establish a classification scheme of the elements based on their electron configurations. Noble Gases All of them have completely filled electron shells. Since they have similar electronic structures, their chemical reactions are similar. He 1s 2 Ne [He] 2s 2 2p 6 Ar [Ne] 3s 2 3p 6 Kr [Ar] 4s 2 4p 6 Xe [Kr] 5s 2 5p 6 Rn [Xe] 6s 2 6p 6
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8 More About the Periodic Table Representative Elements Are the elements in A groups on periodic chart. These elements will have their “last” electron in an outer s or p orbital. These elements have fairly regular variations in their properties.
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9 More About the Periodic Table d -Transition Elements Elements on periodic chart in B groups. Sometimes called transition metals. Each metal has d electrons. n s (n-1) d configurations These elements make the transition from metals to nonmetals. Exhibit smaller variations from row-to-row than the representative elements.
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10 More About the Periodic Table f - transition metals Sometimes called inner transition metals. Electrons are being added to f orbitals. Electrons are being added two shells below the valence shell! Consequently, very slight variations of properties from one element to another. Outermost electrons have the greatest influence on the chemical properties of elements.
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11 Periodic Properties Periodic Properties of the Elements of the Elements Atomic Radii Atomic radii describes the relative sizes of atoms. Atomic radii increase within a column going from the top to the bottom of the periodic table. Atomic radii decrease within a row going from left to right on the periodic table. This last fact seems contrary to intuition. How does nature make the elements smaller even though the electron number is increasing?
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12 Atomic Radii The reason the atomic radii decrease across a period is due to shielding or screening effect. Effective nuclear charge, Z
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Chapter 5 - Quantum Numbers What is the maximum number of...

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