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AP1200_Ch4_Optics-2Refraction-2008

AP1200_Ch4_Optics-2Refraction-2008 - AP1200 4 Optics...

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1 Michel A. Van Hove Michel A. Van Hove WARNING: PRINTING THIS DOCUMENT WILL USE MUCH INK AND WILL NOT SHOW ANIMATIONS. AP1200 – 4. Optics Concepts AP1200 – 4. Optics Concepts 4.2 Refraction 4.2 Refraction

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2 Refraction of light Refraction of light Light is refracted (changes its direction) when it crosses any change of medium i.e. when its speed changes typically refraction occurs at the interface between media we have discussed the cause of refraction in the chapter on waves refraction is always accompanied by some reflection 7
3 Refraction of light: interface Refraction of light: interface Light refraction turns a ray toward the surface normal when entering a medium with lower speed of light Light refraction turns a ray away from the surface normal when entering a medium with higher speed of light the angle of refraction increases with the angle of incidence (this follows from Huygens’ Principle) θ 1 θ 2 8

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4 Refraction of light: wave origin Refraction of light: wave origin c 1 c 2 Consider incidence from medium with c 2 < c 1 , and find θ 1 To generate refracted wave, match = λ 2 /sin θ 2 = λ 1 /sin θ 1 Since c = λ f ( f constant): c 2 /sin θ 2 = c 1 /sin θ 1 Refractive index: n i = c / c i So: n 1 sin θ 1 = n 2 sin θ 2 Snell’s law θ 1 θ 2 θ 1 θ 2 6
5 Question 4.5: refraction by water Question 4.5: refraction by water 7 A fish swims below the surface of the water at location P. An observer at O sees the fish at 1. a greater depth than it really is. 2. the same depth. 3. a smaller depth than it really is.

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6 Refraction of light: block, prism and lens Refraction of light: block, prism and lens A rectangular block refracts light twice, in opposite directions no net change of direction occurs A prism refracts light twice, in the same direction a net change of direction occurs Two opposite prisms reflect light rays toward each other A lens focuses light using “rounded” prisms See also http://www.ngsir.netfirms.com/englishhtm/RefractionByPrism.htm 5
7 Question 4.6: double refraction Question 4.6: double refraction 8 The observer at O views two closely spaced lines through an angled piece of plastic.

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AP1200_Ch4_Optics-2Refraction-2008 - AP1200 4 Optics...

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