0111-Ch16-1 - Chapter 16 Aldehydes and Ketones Ch-16 1 The...

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Chapter 16 Aldehydes and Ketones Ch-16 1
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The Carbonyl Group Classes of compounds containing the carbonyl group , C=O. aldehydes and ketones (Chapter 16) 2 Ch-16 C O R" R' C O R H (H) RÐCHO R'ÐCOÐR"
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The Carbonyl Group Classes of compounds containing the carbonyl group , C=O (contd.). Carboxylic acids (Chapter 17) 3 Ch-16 R C O OH RCOOH, RCO 2 H C C O C C O R C O Cl RCOCl (RCO) 2 O R C O C R O O R'COOR" R' C O OR" R 1 C O N R 3 R 2 (H) (H) RCON< Enolate anions (Chapter 19) Acid halides, acid anhydrides, esters, amides (Chapter 18)
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The Carbonyl Group The carbonyl group (>C=O) as in aldehydes and ketones consists of one σ (sigma) bond formed by the overlap of sp 2 hybrid orbitals and, in addition, one π (pi) bond formed by the overlap of parallel 2 p orbitals between carbon and oxygen (see Chapter 1.7, Fig. 1.21). 4 Ch-16 O O O O O O O "mix" 2p 2p E 2 electrons π π ωαχαντ, νο ελεχτρον
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The Carbonyl Group 5 Ch-16 Methanal (Formaldehyde): π bonding MO π antibonding MO Energy
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Structure
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