Marxian Theory

Marxian Theory - achieves greater freedom, a new stage...

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Marxian Theory Method of reasoning (dialectic). Conflict of opposites and a resulting synthesis produces progress, unfolding in stages and culminating in perfection. Antagonistic social classes contend over the means of production (land, factories, tools). Economic elements (means and relations of production) comprise society’s substructure and basically determine its superstructure (government, law, religion, ideas). Each successive historical stage – primitive communism, slavery, feudalism, capitalism, and socialism – reflects a more mature form of production. Passage to the next stage results inevitably from conflict between a class owing the means of production (in capitalism, the bourgeoisie) and the one it exploits (proletariat). As one mode of production yields to a more advanced one and the exploited class
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Unformatted text preview: achieves greater freedom, a new stage develops, usually by revolution. At first, with numerous small, competing firms, capitalism is revolutionary and dynamic, and unprecedentedly productive. The worker , the creator of value, receives in wages only a fraction of the value his labor creates; the capitalist pockets the rest (surplus value) as profit. The industrial workforce will absorb much of the peasantry and lesser bourgeoisie until the proletariat becomes the vast majority of the population. As overproduction and unemployment grow, so will worker dissatisfaction and class consciousness. Fully developed capitalism will produce mountains of goods, which miserably paid workers cannot buy. Revolutions, predicted Marx, would occur first in advanced capitalist countries....
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