The Monomach Crown The Legend of Monomach described a long tradition and the ancient regalia of the Russian monarchs. These regalia comprised a pectoral cross containing a piece of the wood from the cross of the crucifixion; the barmy, a counterpart to the Byzantine emperors’ shoulder pieces; the crown, or Monomach’s cap, and a chain of the “gold of Araby.” According to the legend, Prince Vladimir Monomach (1113-1125) received imperial regalia from the Emperor Constantine Monomach, his grandfather, who actually died before his accession. Ivan IV undertook three campaigns against the Kazan’ khanate with the view to annexing its territory; the third of these, in 1552, was successful. Some of his advisers thought that he should then have turned against the Crimean Tatars; but he preferred to pursue a policy of westward expansion at the expense of Lithuania and the Livonian Order who controlled the Baltic coast. This involved him in a complex series of military operations known as the Livonian War (1558-
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