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Psych 236 Behaviorism

Psych 236 Behaviorism - Behaviorism What are the 3 basic...

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Behaviorism What are the 3 basic assumptions of behaviorism (and definitions)? 1) Empiricism: knowledge comes from experience -emphasis on the environment 2) Association: organisms learn associations between two things that co-occur (or in close succession); personality is learned 3) Hedonism: People learn to seek pleasure and avoid pain, source of motivation Habituation: As you are repeatedly exposed to stimulus your response to it dies down (or habituates); for example, a car alarm. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) o Why is timing important? Timing of association is important for two to become associated, one needs to come slightly before the other therefore one alters the meaning of the other o How does classical conditioning occur? Well, first a stimulus produces a built in response. Unconditioned response: the natural response to a stimuli before Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus: Any stimuli that can produce an UCR without CC Conditioned stimulus: Object that would not produce an Unconditioned Response Conditioned response: Response after classical conditioning. o Why Classical Conditioning works (Contingency theory and Saliency) - Contingency theory: the conditioned stimulus is a signal for the presence of the unconditioned stimulus, the Conditioned Stimulus has information value about the Unconditioned Stimulus -Saliency: Classical Conditioning works better when the Conditioned Stimulus is salient (clear and obvious as a signal; noticeable aspect of the environment) o Other conditioning processes Stimulus generalization: When the dog, for instance, salivates when the phone rings Stimulus discrimination: When the dog, for instance, hears the church bell its accustomed to he salivates, but when he hears the doorbell, he does not. Learned helplessness: Anxiety or neuroticism that results when one stimulus is not associated with another, unpredictability of negative events. Terrorist attack with no stimulus associated with it to warn us, do not know if parents will give praise or punishment Extinction: with the presence of the bell and food the dogs salivate, with the bell and no food the dog does the same, and then with the bell and no food, dogs do not salivate. o What personality characteristics can be conditioned? Attitudes, phobias, preferences -Attitudes: if a group is associated with negative words, come to feel negatively about that group -phobias: object or situation becomes paired with negative emotions
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-preferences: group, person, or object associated with positive emotions or words o Stimulus-Response theory of personality (Watson) -Personality is simply learning various responses to stimuli -everyone has an idiosyncratic learning history -therefore, each pattern of S-R’s is unique to the individual Operant conditioning (Skinner) o Two types of learning: (1) respondent conditioning: a passive experience with no consequence on its one, (2) operant conditioning: the animal operates on its will to
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Psych 236 Behaviorism - Behaviorism What are the 3 basic...

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