Exam_1_Review - 1. Id EXAM 1 a B. Wells African-American...

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Unformatted text preview: 1. Id EXAM 1 a B. Wells African-American civil—rights advocate and feminist famous for her antilynching crusades. became editor and co-owner of a local black newspaper called "The Free Speech and Headlight." wrote under pen-name "Iola.” Moved to England b/c she got word that she was in danger Returned to US, lived in Chicago and formed the Women's Era Club, later changed to the Ida B. Wells Club In June of 1895 she married Ferdinand Barnett, a prominent Chicago attorney Continued crusade for AA Civil rights until death 1931 2. T. Thomas Fortune. Name of his last newspaper? Organization led? 'I prominent black journalist during post-Civil War era Howard University for two years Started as printer for New York Sun, edited the Globe, later became chief editorial writer for The Negro World, and founded mm organization: 1900 led the National Negro Business League with Booker T, Washington “19%”; 4390‘s r " MLYKMN e/MWI coined term "Afro—American" (instead of Negro in NY newspapers) and founded a counsel after it died in 1928, was writing for the Negro World 3. TomWatson & Ben Tillman Tom Watson made small fortune as a lawyer and landowner. prospered and entered politics in the 1880s. He was elected to the Georgia Legislature in 1882, elected to Congress as an Alliance democrat in 1890 attended first Populist Party congressional caucus. At that meeting, he was nominated for Speaker of the House founded Georgia Populist Party in early 1892. Watson was nominated for Vice President was the Populist candidate for President in 1904 and 1908 was vigorous anti—Catholic crusader who called for the reorganization of the KKK elected to the U.S. Senate in 1920 Ben Tillman A farmer who left school at 17 to enlist in the Confederate States Army, got very sick and lost his left eye in 1864 Became Senator for SC, was censured for assaulting fellow Senator from SC in the US Senate chamber in 1902, During WWI, Chairman of US Senate Committee on Naval Affairs I known as "Pitchfork Ben" o b/c of defense of farmers” interests or o b/c he wanted to stick a pitchfork into Pres. Grover Cleveland I monument to Governor Tillmanin SC — 1940 I Clemson University's has a society and Winthrop has building named after him 4. Colored Farmers' Alliance I formed b/c black farmers in south faced with many economic problems, and they were barred from joining the Southern Alliance b/c they were black. They formed it in Houston County, Texas, on December 11, 1886 I tried to help its members in a variety of ways: 0 educate them on how to become better farmers, it established a weekly newspaper, the National Alliance 0 Received goods at reduced prices and obtained loans to pay off mortgages. o raised funds to provide for longer public school terms, and in some places it founded academies I urged members to uplift themselves by hard work and sacrifice I Made up of landless people who picked cotton for white farmers. I Tried to have cotton pickers in the South to strike, but it failed to materialize in most places. Colored Alliance started to decline rapidly. So the strike contributed to its demise. 5. The Knights of Labor & Their .Mistake? I Secret org. founded in 1869 by Uriah Stephens and five other former members of the Garment Cutters' Association of Philadelphia. I Not open to bankers, lawyers, stockbrokers, doctors and liquor manufacturers. I First union to attempt to unionize women on a national scale I went into decline after the formation of American Federation of Labour in 1886 6. Booker T. Washington I passed exam to get into Hampton Institute, convinced Dr. Armstrong that he should have scholarship, and worked as a janitor to pay for school I graduated and got his PhD in 1875 I begins teaching at Hampton to teach Native Americans I given opportunity to be president of the Tuskegee 'I begins to build Tuskegee into industrial education college I encourages students not to bother whites I appeals to rich Whites in North I In 1895 at Atlanta, Ga., Washington made a highly controversial speech on the place of the African American in American life. It was denounced by many AA leaders, including W. E. B. Du Bois . I was the organizer of the National Negro Business League 7. Du Bois, W. E. B. I became the leading black opponent of racial discrimination. I was a historian and sociologist first African American to express idea of Pan-Afiicanism He graduated from Fisk University in 1888. first African American to receive a PhD. degree at Harvard University. strongly opposed Booker T. Washington founded the Niagara Movement in 1905. 1909 helped found NAACP In 1961, Du Bois joined the Communist Party and moved to Ghana ‘8. William Monroe Trotter born Springfield Township, Ohio graduated from Harvard in1895 1899 married daughter of prominent fighter of man who faught to intergrate boston schools In 1901, Trotter and George Forbes founded Boston Guardian. As a political activist, led protests against segregation in fed govt, led pickets against the Birth of a Nation, and defended the Scottsboro Boys. one of the founders of the Niagara Movement in 1905, withdrew to form the National Equal Rights League. 9.’ Henry McNeal Turner “5. one of the first Bishops in the African American Episcopal Church an army chaplain, political organizer, magazine editor, college chancellor, and preacher introduced bills for: 0 higher education for blacks 0 creation of a Black militia to protect black people from KKK 0 give women the right to vote encouraged black people to return to Africa theologian decraled: “God is a Negro” was an agitator and a prophet who addressed the hopes and frustrations of African Americans struggling in the 19th century 10. Kelly House 11. Mary Church Terrell '- a writer, lecturer, educator born into one of the wealthier families in Memphis, Tennessee graduate of Oberlin college in 1884. . .one of first black women to complete college education married Robert Turrell, then resigned her teaching post to spend the rest of her life as a lecturer, women’s rights activist, and leader of the black women’s club movement one of the first women presidents of the Bethel Leterary and Historical Association first president of NACW (National Association of Colored Women) 12. Madame C.J. Walker Birth name Sarah Breedlove built her empire developing hair products for black women to regrow their hair. She gave lectures on black issues After East St. Louis Race Riot of 1917, devoted herself to having lynching made a federal crime 1- I 1918 she was keynote speaker at many NAACP fund raisers for anti-lynching effort and donated large sums of money to them for that cause -I at death: considered to be the wealthiest African-American woman in America and known to be the first African-American woman millionaire 13. Anna Julia Cooper I Worked with W.E.B. DuBois I Enrolled in St. Augustine Academy I Married St. Augustine graduate George Cooper I began to pursue career as a teacher when her husband died I Received bachelor’s and master’s from Oberlin College I Subject of public controversy because of educational philosophy I 1925 received doctorate from University of Paris I 4th African American woman to receive doctorates I was an antilyncher I only woman elected to prestigious American Negro Academy receieved PhD age of 66 14. Benjamin "Pap" Singleton ‘I called himself the "father of the Black Exodus” I made a living building cabinets and coffins I preached to fonner-slaves about going west to farm & own fed. homestead lands I Called a convention in order to start the “Black Exodus” I The convention formed the Tennessee Emigration Society I established a colony at Dunlap, Morris County, Kansas, in June of 1879 I 1882 Black Exodus had stopped I died out West during the late 1880s and was buried in an unidentified grave 15. Edward Blyden I Liberian born in St. Thomas moved to US in 1850 to become a clergyman, but was turned down because of his race when he tried to enter theological college, so he emigrated to Liberia in 1851 Statesman, Educator became an able handy linguist, classicist, theologian, historian, and sociologist secretary of state of Liberia. 1885 unsuccessful candidate for the Liberian presidency 1901—1906 director of Moslem education trying to build bridge of communication between the Moslem and Christian communities I produced more than two dozen pamphlets and books, and edited many African American magazines 16. Lucy Parsons I forced out of Texas because of her mixed marriage to a former confederate soldier... moved to Chicago opened a dress shop when her husband lost his job powerful writer and speaker, crucial role in worker's movements in Chicago. 1883 helped found IWPA "To Tramps," famous article she wrote for the IWPA paper rally at Haymarket Square: bomb was hurled at police officers after they attacked the demonstration. Police blamed the IWPA, and arrested her husband Albert all found guilty of murder, in November of that year her husband was hanged 1927 became member of National Committee of the International Labor Defense 1939 Joined communist party after working for them for a number of years Parsons died in a fire in her Chicago home in 1942 17. George Washington Williams I American historian, clergyman, politician that served in the Ohio House of Representatives (1879-1881), lawyer, lecturer, and soldier that served in the Union army at age 14, and the first person to write an objective and scientifically researched history of black people in the US I A visit to the Congo in 1890 shocked him into an appreciation of Leopold's brutal exploitation of the people of the Congo, and Williams spent the short remainder of his life publicizing the outrages that were being perpetrated there. 18. Alexander Crummell I ordained by Bishop Lee of Delaware 1844 a I attended queens college in England I obtained bachelor’s degree (1853) Cambridge University in England I went to Liberia, spent l6yrs working as a farmer, educator, small businessman, and Episcopal missionary 1872 returned to US settled in Washington DC and est. St. Luke’s Episcopal church in 1879 1897 founded American Negro Academy wrote over 400 sermons and political essays rejected “feel good” religion believed in self-help passed away September 1898 19. Nobel Drew Ali (Timothy Drew) I known for his Moorish Holy Temple of Science. taught that African Americans were of Islamic heritage, not Christian, and should be referred to as “Moors.” I stated that Negro and Black signified death and Colored signified something painted. Therefore the terms Asiatic, Moor or Moorish-American must be used. taught that salvation was found by discovering national origin and refusing to be called Negro, Black, Colored, Ethiopian, etc." Also instilled the idea of Moorish superiority over the white race Mysterious death in 1929 20. What was Supreme Court casein 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson about? H Homer Plessy, 30yr old shoemaker, was jailed for sitting in the "White's car of the East Louisiana Railroad Plessy was a mix of 7/8 white and 1/8 black. Louisiana law still considered him black so had to sit in “colored’s car” went to court and argued that the Separate Car Act violated 13th & 14th Amendments. judge was John Howard Ferguson Ferguson found Plessy guilty of refusing to leave the White car Plessy appealed to Supreme Court of Louisiana, but they upheld Ferguson's opinion. Plessy then decided to take it to the US Supreme Court. In 1896, The Supreme Court of the US found Homer Plessy guilty once again not. until the case of Brown vs. Board of Education in 1954 that. "separate but equal" would no longer be the law of the land ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course AFR-AME 1101 taught by Professor Stanford during the Fall '10 term at Temple.

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Exam_1_Review - 1. Id EXAM 1 a B. Wells African-American...

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