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Final_Exam_Notes - HIST - 1720 Final Exam Who was Ella...

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Unformatted text preview: HIST - 1720 Final Exam Who was Ella Baker and what did she believe in? Ella Baker was a civil rights activist who believed that strong effective local activism as opposed to centralized top down activism was essential to bring about the changes necessary to foster political and economic change for African Americans. She facilitated the organizing of SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) by calling together student leaders from across the country to a conference at Shaw University in 1960. What was the Women’s Political Council in Montgomery, Alabama ane what did they do? The Women’s Political Council in Montgomery was an organization of African American women that had been working in Montgomery trying to change the segregated bus system even before the arrest of Rosa Parks. Upon Mrs. Parks arrest, it was the Council women who contacted the local ministers and organized the first Montgomery bus boycott. What did Martin Luther King, Jr. believe in, and how did he go about accomplishing it? Martin Luther King believed that change could and should come about through non-violent means. This was the method he advocated and taught to those who participated in his movement. Non-violent retaliation was practiced no matter how threatening or violent the situation might be. Who was Robert F. Williams and what did he advocate? Robert Williams, learned the importance of challenging the status quo from his grandparents. As a young man he rejected the concept of non-violence for armed resistance. As president of the Monroe, NC, NAACP, he developed an armed self defense guard that fought the KKK. His militancy eventually caused him to flee the country and live in Cuba and then China where he gained access to prominent Chinese leaders. His knowledge of Chinese systems and government was influential in paving the way for Richard Nixon’s famed visit to China and the reestablishment of China/US relations. What was SNCC (the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) and what did it do? SNCC was the student led movement that initiated the sit-ins and freedom rides that resulted in the desegregation of public accommodations. HIST-1720 Final Exam Page 2 Why did Southern African-American ministers led by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SNLC) provide leadership to the southern civil rights movement in the 1950's and early 60's. The African American church and its leaders has always had a prominent role in all facets of life in the African American community. It not only nourishes the spirit but the minds and hearts of African Americans. Its leaders are usually well respected in the community. The Church is the place of solace, guidance, «- information and social interaction. Thus, when the civil rights movement began it was the church and its leaders who could rally the support and cohesiveness necessary to affect change. What role did Diane Nash play in the Nashville student sit-in movement and the Freedom Rides of 1961 ? She was one of the student leaders of sit -ins in Nashville, TN. When Freedom Riders found themselves without protection or transportation, Diane Nash provided transportation back to Birmingham. Later she made it clear the movement of the sixties was really a peoples movement. The media recorded the era as Martin Luther King’s movement. Ms Nash made it clear that it was a people’s movement who’s primary proponents were young people like themselves. Who was Ms. Fannie Lou Hamer and what was the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)? She was the youngest child of a Mississippi sharecropping family. She quit school in the sixth grade. However, she was determined to register and vote. She became a dedicated leader and powerful speaker on behalf of the rights of African Americans. She was a founder of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) which sought to integrate the Mississippi delegation to the 1964 Democratic Convention. She led the MFDP delegation to the convention and demanded that her delegation be seated in lieu of the all white delegation. Her demands were ignored but she address appear on television to question America’s commitment to “justice for all”. The 1968 Mississippi delegation was an integrated body What did the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) contribute to the Civil Rights Movement? Dedicated young people from across the country put their education - indeed, their 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. HIST -l720 Final Exam Page 3 very lives —- on hold in order, not only to demonstrate, but to actively participate in the Civil Rights Movement. They started the sit-ins to protest segregated facilities in public accommodations. Later, they were at the forefront of the voter registration drives and Freedom Rides across the South. What was Malcolm X’s philosophy and program before his assassination, February 21. 1965? He advocated self-defense and armed resistance to oppression. He recognized the ~ importance of economic change nationalism. He felt it important for African Americans to participate in the political process. Why did SNCC change its slogan form “Freedom Now” to “Black Power”? The students had to learn what lower class African Americans already knew — that the power structure, i.e., courts, law enforcement, political leaders and leaders of the African American community would not come to their aid when things got rough. Stokley Carmichael coined the phrase and it was impressed by the African American community including the students. How did SNCC’s policy of opposing U.S. involvement in the Civil War in Vietnam affect white college/university students? The Black Power slogan effectively told white students to go home. Chapters of SDS (Students for a Democratic Society) sprung up on campuses all over the country to also protest the Vietnam War. They also protested university cooperation with the military and other human rights issues. Why is April 4, 1967 important in terms of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr’s transition to a non-violent revolutionary? He announces his opposition to the Vietnam War. He led mass demonstrations of whites and African Americans opposing the war. What happened in Cleveland in 1967 that impacted on the condition of the entire national African American community? The election of Carl Stokes as the first African American mayor of a major city in the US. ’ 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Hist - 1720 Final Exam Page 4 What was Dr. King advocating with his proposed Poor People’s March in 1968? Sought to pressure Congress to be more sensitive to the needs of the poor. What organization emerged to the helm (leadership) of the African American movement for the empowerment after Dr. King’s assassination in 1968? The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) -~ What event in the 1970's marks the transition from agitation and protest to electoral politics? The organization of the Black Panther Party. What effect, in your opinion, did the national repression against the Black Panther Party and other militants have on the African American community? I think it heightened awareness of the repression of African Americans by the power structure and hardened our determination to bring about change. Why was the election of Maynard Jackson of Atlanta, GA, in 1973 such an important event? It was the first time that an African American had been elected mayor of a major southern city. Who is Andrew Young and why has he been such an important leader since the 1970's? He succeeded Maynard Jackson as mayor of Atlanta. In 1972, he became the first African American elected to Congress from Georgia since Reconstruction. President Carter appointed him ambassador to the United Nations. He also co- chaired the Atlanta Committee for the 1996 Olympic Games. Who is Louis Farrakhan, and what did he advocate and what is his program now? He is the leader of a faction of Black Muslims known as the Nation of Islam. He advocates black self-sufficiency and personal responsibility. Why were the years of Harold Washington campaigns and mayoral-ship of Chicago so important? 23. 24. 25. HIST 1720 Final Exam Page 5 Harold Washington’s election as mayor of Chicago heralded the end of a long- standing, well-oiled political machine in Chicago. He opened up the purchasing process in goods and services to women and minorities and increased diversity in hiring practices and ended city patronage. These were all important steps for the inclusion of African Americans in the Chicago political process. How has Jesse Jackson contributed as a leader since 1984? His Rainbow Coalition continues to be the banner for addressing the needs of the ~ poor, immigrants, etc. He has also become a roving ambassador and has successfully defused several sensitive hostage situations around the globe. Today’s news advised that he has gone to Africa to try to mediate hostage situations in Sierra Leon and in the Congo. He is considered one of the most influential men in the country. What impact did the Million Man March have on the nation and the world? I think that the Million Man March showed both the participants and observers that the African American male is a force to be reckoned with. That as leaders in their local communities as well as on the national scene, they have the power to chart their own destiny by assuming and embracing their responsibilities to themselves, their families, and by continuing to struggle against the oppressive power structure. What is the main weakness in the movement today? Lack of leadership. his Mew My? 12mm] w? WM W W ...
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Final_Exam_Notes - HIST - 1720 Final Exam Who was Ella...

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