Exam II Study Guide

Exam II Study Guide - Exam II Study Guide I. Motivation a....

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Exam II Study Guide I. Motivation a. Theories of Motivation i. Instinct 1. Freud’s eros and thanatos a. Eros (life/love instinct) b. Thanatos (death/drive to destroy) ii. Drive 1. Hull’s tension reduction- we have biological needs that create tensions, and we strive to reduce this tension. iii. Growth Motivation 1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs- To reach our full potential, all lower needs must be met first. Transcendence- No one will reach the top. b. Achievement Motivation i. Need Achievement theory 1. McClelland a. Person Factors i. Achieve success v. avoid failure b. Situation factors i. Probability of success ii. Value of success- when it is worth more ii. Attribution Theory 1. Causality a. Internal v. external i. Do we attribute why we do things to ourselves or to other people. 2. Stability a. Stable v. unstable
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i. Something stable will not change (I studied hard but still did poorly) ii. Something unstable will change (I should have studied harder) 3. Specificity a. global v. specific i. 4. Controllability a. In control v. out of control 5. Effects on a. Emotions b. Motivation c. Expectations c. Theories of Emotion i. James-Lange Theory 1. Event-arousal-perception-emotion ii. Schacter and Singer Theory 1. Event-arousal-perception-cognition-emotion d. Human Sexual Response Cycle i. Stages 1. Desire- physical attraction 2. Excitement- Changes related to blood flow 3. Plateau- Maximum peak 4. Orgasm- Release of tension (muscle contractions lasting 8/10 of a second) 5. Resolution- ii. Gender Differences II. MEMORY AND FORGETTING a. Processes- i. encoding : we have to form a memory code. We need to put the information there in the first place.
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ii. storage : we must be able to maintain and preserve our memory over time. iii. revival : we must be able to pull out and retrieve memories. iv. EXAMPLE : *Compute Processing: enter data through a keyboard, save the data on hard disk, display info on monitor. b. Structures of Memory i. Sensory memory - touching our palm and feeling the sensation later. Holds sensory information and lasts only several seconds a. instantaneous delay ii. Short term memory : Holds perceptions for analysis 1. encoding - 2. selective attention : within any 1 channel, certain information is more important than others. EXAMPLE : if you are in a crowded party and you hear your name, you will notice it amongst the noise. We pay selective attention to what is important. 3. sensory gating : we have 5 senses, 1 channel serves as a gate. It is the primary sense we use. EXAMPLE : driving past the exit during our favorite song. The auditory sense made a bigger impact. 4. storage
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Exam II Study Guide - Exam II Study Guide I. Motivation a....

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