The Formation of the biblical canon
1. From scroll to codex
3. NT canon: stages of development
4. NT canon: criteria of selection
5. Marcion’s contribution
6. Irenaeus’ contribution
1. Means “measuring rod”
2. Came to be used for “list” of authoritative books that were thought to be inspired/
contain divinely revealed words (but still written down by human hand with real
input of human authors)
– book format, great tool for spreading Christianity.
4. Codex Sinaiticus (a palimpsest)
Underlying text: the earliest extant Christian Palestinian Aramaic, 6
Overlying text: Georgian, dated 979. Mt. Sinai, Egypt.
5. Scriptio continua. Prologue to the Gospel of John (fragment of 1:1-14), ca. 200
Writing without separating words and punctuation.
Sacred names abbreviated.
1. Greek translation of the OT
2. Started in Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus in the third c. BC
3. The legend (Letter of Aristeas)
4. Significance: became the OT scripture of the Church
Oral Traditions behind the Gospels
1. Collected, memorized and recorded:
Sayings of Jesus
2. Source Criticism – Four Source Hypothesis
Four Sources = “M”, Mark, “Q”, and “L”
Matthew uses “M”, Mark, and “Q”
ii. Luke uses Mark, “Q”, and “L”
iii. “Q” = Quelle which is German for “source”
Proliferation of Apocrypha
1. Gospels attributed to individual apostles or groups.
Peter, James, Philip, Thomas, Judas, Mary, pseudo-Matthew, Matthias,
Bartholomew, the Twelve Apostles, Ebionites, Hebrews, Nazareans,
2. Gospels under general titles: