Theology100ClassNotes - Exam II The Formation of the...

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Exam II The Formation of the biblical canon 1. From scroll to codex 2. Septuagint 3. NT canon: stages of development 4. NT canon: criteria of selection 5. Marcion’s contribution 6. Irenaeus’ contribution Canon 1. Means “measuring rod” 2. Came to be used for “list” of authoritative books that were thought to be inspired/ contain divinely revealed words (but still written down by human hand with real input of human authors) 3. Codex – book format, great tool for spreading Christianity. 4. Codex Sinaiticus (a palimpsest) a. Underlying text: the earliest extant Christian Palestinian Aramaic, 6 th c. AD. b. Overlying text: Georgian, dated 979. Mt. Sinai, Egypt. 5. Scriptio continua. Prologue to the Gospel of John (fragment of 1:1-14), ca. 200 a. Writing without separating words and punctuation. b. Sacred names abbreviated. Septuagint 1. Greek translation of the OT 2. Started in Alexandria under Ptolemy Philadelphus in the third c. BC 3. The legend (Letter of Aristeas) 4. Significance: became the OT scripture of the Church Oral Traditions behind the Gospels 1. Collected, memorized and recorded: a. Sayings of Jesus b. Miracle stories c. Passion narrative 2. Source Criticism – Four Source Hypothesis a. Four Sources = “M”, Mark, “Q”, and “L” i. Matthew uses “M”, Mark, and “Q” ii. Luke uses Mark, “Q”, and “L” iii. “Q” = Quelle which is German for “source” Proliferation of Apocrypha 1. Gospels attributed to individual apostles or groups. a. Peter, James, Philip, Thomas, Judas, Mary, pseudo-Matthew, Matthias, Bartholomew, the Twelve Apostles, Ebionites, Hebrews, Nazareans, Egyptians. 2. Gospels under general titles: a. Perfection
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b. Truth c. The Four Heavenly Regions 3. Gospels attributed to heretics: a. Cerinthus, Basilides, Marcion, Apelles, Bardesanes, Mani. 4. Other apocryphal literature: a. Apocryphon of: John, James; Apocalypse of John, Peter; Correspondence between Paul and Seneca; Shepherd of Hermas. NT Canon: Stages of Development 1. Witnessing Jesus’ ministry 2. Preaching and teaching about Jesus 3. Composition of the written materials 4. Proliferation of writings 5. Informal selection of writings NT Canon: Informal Selection Criteria 1. Use in public worship and teaching 2. Orthodoxy = agreement with the apostolic tradition and rule of faith 3. Apostolicity = attributed to apostles or “apostolic men” 4. Antiquity = belong to the “apostolic age” Marcion’s version of Christianity 1. Native of Sinope, Pontus 2. Expelled from church by his father, who was a local bishop, for “seducing a virgin”. Report is hardly reliable. 3. Well-to-do ship-master and was known in Rome as such 4. Gave a sizable donation to the church upon his arrival to Rome (200,000 sesterces) 5. Edited his version of Paul’s letters; wrote Antitheses (to expose contradictions between 2 testaments); submitted work to Roman church, asking that they took a stand 6. Response: excommunication; money returned 7. Marcion continued his propaganda with the result that Tertullian could write from
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Theology100ClassNotes - Exam II The Formation of the...

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