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Chapter 1-4 - Chapter 1-Thinking memory and attitude...

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Chapter 1 -Thinking, memory, and attitude operate on two different levels (conscious and unconscious) the bigger part operates automatically and independent from the other -1 st principle-you must not fool yourself; you are the easiest person to fool (Feynman 1997) Hindsight bias ( knew it all along ) and judgmental overconfidence ( in experiments, people greatly over estimate their lie detection and eyewitness abilities ); 2 phenomena that illustrate why we cannot solely rely on intuition and common sense ( used to be known as folk psychology ) -Components of the scientific method; (1) a hard headed curiosity, a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled (2) to skeptically scrutinize competing ideas and (3) an open minded humility before nature -Critical Thinking; thinking that doesn’t blindly accept arguments and conclusions. But examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions. scientific attitude that allows us to think both scientifically and smarter. - Scientific method; -Theory, organizes observations and predicts behaviors and outcomes before they happen. -Hypothesis - a testable prediction about the results and enables us to test and accept or reject the theory. -Operational definitions -statement of procedures used to define research variables. (Ex; human intelligence operationally defines what an intelligence test measures) -Replication - repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations to see if findings extend to other participants and circumstances. -Case study—observational technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. -Survey- tecniques ( wording effects, random sampling ) for gauging self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group by questioning a sample of representatives of the said group. -Population- all cases in a group being studied -Random sample- sample test group that fairly represents a population because each member has equal chance of inclusion -Naturalistic observation- observing and recording behavior in natural surroundings without trying to manipulate or control the situation
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-Correlation- measure of the extent to which 2 factors vary together and how well either factor predicts the other -correlation- a statistical index of the relationship between 2 things (between -1 and +1) the closer to -1 and +1 the more the result is possible -illusionary correlation-perception of a relationship where none exist
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