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CH 5-8 Vocab - CH 5 Vocab Developmental Psychology-branch...

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CH 5 Vocab Developmental Psychology- branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive and social change throughout lifespan Zygote- the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo - developing human organism from about 2 weeks after vertilization through second month Fetus -developing human organism from 9 weeks to birth Teratogens -agents, such as chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus during parental development and can cause harm Fetal Alcohol Syndrome -physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. Severe cases cause facial disproportion Habituation -decreased responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to visual stimulus, interest wanes and look away sooner Maturation -biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience Cognition -all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating Schema -a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Assimilation -interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas Accommodation -adapting our current understandings to incorporate new info Sensorimotor Stage -in Piagets theory (birth to 2 years), the stage during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Object Permanence -the awareness that things continue to exist even when not percieved Preoperation Stage -Piagets theory (2-7 years) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend mental operations of concrete logic Conservation -the principle Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the from of the object Egocentrism -Piagets theory where preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view
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Theory of Mind -peoples ideas about their own and others mental states-about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behaviors these might predict Concrete Operational Stage- Piagets theory (cognitive development 7-11 years old) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events Formal Operational Stage -Piaget’s theory (cognitive development beginning at about 12 years old) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts Autism -disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others states of mind Stranger Anxiety -fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months Attatchment -emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by seeking their closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation Critical Period
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