Lecture25 - Running Water Streamflow Factors that determine...

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Running Water
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Streamflow Factors that determine velocity ¾ Channel shape and size The more circular the channel cross-section, the less friction there is overall, and thus the velocity can be higher. Figure 16.5 1m/s 2 3 4 16
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¾ A river discharge also increases downstream due to the contribution of numerous upstream tributaries. ¾ Thus, we see that 1) velocity, 2) channel size, and 3) discharge increase downstream (e.g., Missouri - Mississippi river system). Streamflow Figure 16.31 Figure 16.6 (colored circles are not real data)
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Base level and graded streams Base level is the lowest point to which a stream will flow •Two general types of base level Ultimate base level is sea level Local or temporary (e.g., lakes, reservoirs) •Changing conditions causes readjustment of stream activities Raising base level causes deposition of sediments Lowering base level causes erosion of sediments Figure 16.9 Sedimentation in reservoir
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Sediments in streams Transport of sediment by streams ¾ Transported material is called the stream’s load ¾ More swiftly flowing water can generally carry large sediment particles ¾ Types of load Dissolved load - half material being carried down Mississippi River is dissolved Suspended load - generally silts and clays Bed load - generally gravels and sands High suspended load low suspended load http://www.bigskyfishing.com/River- Fishing/Central-MT-Rivers/missouri- river/Missouri_Photo_Gallery/Missouri RiverPhotographs/images/dearborn_con fluence.jpg
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http://epswww.unm.edu/facstaff /gmeyer/eps481/481fluvial.htm Scenario: River 1 flows at 0.5 cm/sec River 1 carries clays and silts. River 2 flows at 10 cm/sec. River 2 carries clays, silts, & sands river 1 river 2
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Figure 16.15 ¾ Channels Braided channels Meandering channels ¾ Bars ¾ Floodplain Natural levees Oxbow lakes Back swamps Yazoo tributaries ¾ Deltas
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¾ Channels Braided channels Meandering channels ¾ Bars ¾ Floodplain Natural levees Oxbow lakes Back swamps Yazoo tributaries ¾ Deltas Typical features of streams Figure 16.27
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Figure 16.28 Special type of meandering stream that is “incised” or cut into the bedrock
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Figure 16.14 Point bar Cut bank http://www.unomaha.edu/geomorf/ Todd/IMAGES/Pic006.jpg
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Figure 16.14 c h a n e l m i g r t s y d o w
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http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov/DAAC_DOCS/geom orphology/GEO_4/GE O_PLATE_F-11.HTML Numerous meandering channels in Alaska
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Lecture25 - Running Water Streamflow Factors that determine...

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