14-43 - A nthropology lecture notes 4.20.09 The emergence...

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Anthropology lecture notes 4.20.09 The emergence of state Some theories on the origin of states Agriculture surplus and craft specialization o Surplus could feel specialists o Specialists multiply and organization becomes more complex The “hydraulic hypothesis” o Earliest states developed in river valleys o Irrigation essential for crop yields Trade imperative o Rich in farmland and agricultural products but poor in other resources o Control of supplies procurement Warfare o Need to organize defense of agricultural lands o War leaders become a social force Action theory o Powerful and charismatic individuals use opportunities for their own advancement Multicausal explanations o Variety of reasons for state formation o Different causes in different places Two general types of early states (according to Bruce Trigger)
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City-states (eg mesopotamis, Aegean, Maya) Territorial states (eg Egypt, China, Incas) Centers of early state formation Mesoamerica
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14-43 - A nthropology lecture notes 4.20.09 The emergence...

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