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14-34 - • Bigger brains require more fuel • Brain fuel...

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Anthropology lecture notes april 7, 2009 The origins of culture Acheulean Achaulean tools more efficient than Oldowan but take more effort and planning to make More standardized and more diversified tools Achaulean grew out of Oldowan around 1.6 mya Not equally represented everywhere Fire First evidence for controlled use of fire ever Swartkrans, S. Africa – burnt bones dated to 1.3 mya Kao Poh Nam rock shelter in Thailand – hearth c. 700 kya Why is fire important? Enables people to inhabit colder climates Makes food more palatable and easier to chew Removes toxins from certain types of foods Makes some useful nutrients digestible e.g. starches Clearing of forests Keeps away predators Social life? Brain and fire Brains expensive! Evolutionary trend in Homo – bigger brains
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Unformatted text preview: • Bigger brains require more fuel • Brain fuel in the form of higher quality foods. Brain and changes in physiognomy • Larger craniums, smaller teeth and jaws • Reduced sexual dimorphism • Wider birth canal in females Hunting • Ambrona and Torralba sites in Spain o 400 kya o Evidence for organized massive hunting cooperation • Schöningen in Germany o 5 wooden spears Hunting or fighting o 400 kya First seafarers? • Flores Island in Indonesia o 800 kya stone tools o Island never connected to mainland • The earliest H. erectus finds in Europe are located in southern Europe, close to the Mediterranean sea. Language? • Enlarged hypoglossal canal (500 kya+) • Lateralization of the brain • Organization (hunt and water crossing)...
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