14-2 - Anthropology lecture notes 11.3.09 second part of...

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Anthropology lecture notes 11.3.09 second part of class Genes Portions of molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that contain information for making (coding for ) specific proteins Alleles – alternate forms of a single gene Chromosomes – long strands of DNA DNA o Two nucleotides made of sugars and phosphate that form the backbone of the DNA strands o To each sugar molecule one of the 4 bases is attached: Adenine Cytosine Guanine Thymine o Role – storage of information on the sequence of amino acids in proteins. Sex o Genes are inherited from both parents through the process of Meiosis o Meiosis – type of cell division that produces cells with half the number of chromosomes found in other cells o Sexual reproduction – merging of two cells, one from each parent, containing half the number of chromosomes When two cells join: o Homozygous Chromosome pair with identical alleles for a single gene o Heterozygous Chromosome pair with different alleles for a single gene Evolution in genetic terms
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