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15-3 - Shultz Chapter 2 Culture[9-16 1 Introduction 1...

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Shultz – Chapter 2 “Culture” [9-16] 1. Introduction 1. Culture : sets of learned behavior and ideas that humans acquire as members of society. 1. Humans use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which we live 2. It is shared, as well as learned 3. Established ways of bringing ideas from different domains together 2. Habitus : cultural learning that is never explicitly taught, but rather is absorbed in the course of daily practical living 1. i.e.: table manners, what’s good to eat, where people are supposed to sleep 3. culture is symbolic , learned, shared, adaptive, patterned 4. Foundation of culture contains 5 elements: 1. 1. Transmission : copying behavior by observation or instruction 2. 2. Memory : b/c traditions cannot develop unless new behavior is remembered 3. 3. Reiteration : the ability to reproduce or imitate behavior or information that has been learned 4. 4. Innovation : the ability to invent new behaviors 5. 5. Selection : the ability to select which innovations to keep and which to discard 5. 3 Elements that evolved and made Human Culture possible: 1. 1. Symbolic Coding : [symbolic representation] 2. 2. Complex Symbolic Representation : includes the ability to communicate freely about the past, the future, and the invisible. 3. Institutions : complex and variable forms of social organization 2. Explaining Culture and the Human Condition [p.20] 1. Dualistic, Idealistic, and Materialistic Explanations 1. Dualism : the philosophical view the reality consists of 2 equal and irreducible [incapable of simplification] forces 1. Common Western view on the human condition 2. Greek Philosopher Plato divided all reality into mind
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