Chapter8 - 2/17/10 Definitions Chapter 8 Genome: All the...

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2/17/10 1 Chapter 8 Bacterial Genetics Definitions Genome: All the organism’s genetic information Chromosome: One piece of DNA, containing genes Bacterial genome = one chromosome Eukaryotic genomes = several or many chromosomes Gene: A section of DNA that describes a protein Review of DNA Structure DNA is a polymer of nucleotides Nucleotide = phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base The four bases are A, T, G and C The Double Helix Phosphates and sugars covalently connect to form polymer strand Two strands connect by hydrogen bonds between bases Twisted form (helix) Base Pairing The two strands are complementary (each base on one strand has a match on the other strand) A always pairs with T G always pairs with C Replication DNA unwinds and the strands separate Each old strand is the template for a new one Base pairing determines sequence, ensures perfect duplicates
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2/17/10 2 Fig. 8.3 DNA Polymerase DNA polymerase is the enzyme that synthesizes new strands As it goes along, it checks new base pairs for accuracy (“proofreading”) Can go back and fix mistakes! Leading and Lagging The two strands of a helix are antiparallel (they run in opposite directions) The new strands must also be antiparallel Therefore one (leading strand) can be made continuously, the other one (lagging strand) is made in pieces as the helix unwinds Bacterial Replication Bacterial circular chromosome opens up to form two replication forks, which meet halfway around Fig. 8.6
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2/17/10 3 RNA Structure Differences from DNA 1. Ribose sugar, not deoxyribose 2. Single-stranded 3. Uracil instead of thymine (A-U pairs) Three Kinds of RNA rRNA: Ribosomal; part of ribosomes mRNA: Messenger; disposable copy of gene tRNA: Transfer; translates codons to amino acids Protein Synthesis Transcription DNA to RNA Translation RNA to protein Transcription RNA polymerase enzyme creates mRNA from
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course MICR 130 taught by Professor Umemoto during the Fall '09 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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Chapter8 - 2/17/10 Definitions Chapter 8 Genome: All the...

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