Chapter16 - 12/2/09 Fig. 16.1 Chapter 16 Nonspecific...

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12/2/09 1 Chapter 16 Nonspecific Defenses Fig. 16.1 Types of Defenses Innate: Defenses present at birth Work on many kinds of pathogens Adaptive: Defenses responding to infection Specific for one kind of pathogen Slow response, but has memory First Line of Defense: Skin Dry Flaky - top layers flake off dead cells Tightly packed cells in layers prevent entry Acidic - oil glands produce acidic sebum Lysozyme in sweat (digests peptidoglycan) First Line: Mucus Membranes Not dry; covered with mucus (a viscous glycoprotein) The membranes have mechanisms to wash away microorganisms: Salivary glands in mouth Strong acids of gastric juice in stomach Urine washes urethra Lacrimal Apparatus in the Eye Glands produce tears, which wash the eye surface Liquid is collected by several ducts and goes to nose
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12/2/09 2 Fig. 16.3 Ciliary Escalator in the Trachea (Cilia are organelles for motion, smaller and shorter than flagella) Lining of ciliated cells in trachea move mucus up to throat, then it is swallowed Fig. 16.4 First Line: Normal Microbiota Microbial Antagonism: Normal microbiota compete with pathogens for nutrients, oxygen They also secrete inhibiting substances and/or change the local pH Example: Candida albicans (yeast) causes vaginitis if pH is not low enough; normal microbiota keep pH low Review of Formed Elements
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Chapter16 - 12/2/09 Fig. 16.1 Chapter 16 Nonspecific...

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