CellularBiologyI-1 - BIOLOGY 11 HUMAN BIOLOGY The...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOLOGY 11 HUMAN BIOLOGY The Scientific Method 1. Observation 2. Hypothesis: a testable explanation 3. Experiment: 1). control group 2). repeatability 4. Conclusion: hypothesis supported or disproved Scientists typically ask lots of questions! Characteristics of Life 1. Living things reproduce 2. Living things are composed of cells 3. Living things metabolize and grow 4. Living things respond 5. Living things maintain constant internal conditions (homeostasis) 6. Living things evolve Evolution in a Nutshell 1. Evolution : the transformation of life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to its diversity today 2. All of life is connected. Life began as a single cell more than 3 billion years ago 3. Genetic variation among individuals 4. Resources are limited competition 5. Individuals with useful variations leave more offspring CELLULAR BIOLOGY ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1. Chemistry terms: Atom = smallest chemical unit Proton (+ charge) Neutron (neutral) Electron (- charge) Element = atom with specific # of protons in the nucleus oxygen 8 the atomic number of oxygen is 8 Periodic Table lists elements in order of atomic number Isotopes are versions of an element with different number of neutrons in the nucleus some are stable; some are radioactive 2. Electron arrangements Shells = energy levels surrounding nucleus, where electrons can orbit The number of electrons = number of protons Shells fill at lowest (innermost) energy level first First shell holds up to 2 electrons; the next shells can hold 8 electrons: Helium (AN 2) Carbon (AN 6) Chlorine (AN 17) 2 + 8 + 7 Chemical Bonds Valence shell = the outermost energy level that has any electrons in it Atoms are most stable when the valence shell is filled see noble gases of periodic table Some atoms can steal electrons to fill valences shell; they are ionized no longer neutral Ex....
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2011 for the course MICR 130 taught by Professor Umemoto during the Fall '09 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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CellularBiologyI-1 - BIOLOGY 11 HUMAN BIOLOGY The...

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