Ecological Principles - Ecological Principles Ecology = the...

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Unformatted text preview: Ecological Principles Ecology = the study of the interaction of organisms with their environments. It involves understanding biotic and abiotic factors influencing the distribution and abundance of living things. Biotic Factors Competitors Disease Predators Food availability Habitat availability Symbiotic relationships Abiotic Factors pH Temperature Weather conditions Water availability Chemical composition of environment nitrates, phosphates, ammonia, O 2 , pollution The word " ecology " coined from Greek word " oikos ", which means " house " or "place to live. population growth competition between species symbiotic relationships trophic (=feeding) relationships origin of biological diversity interaction with the physical environment The Biosphere The entire proportion of the earth that is inhabited by life. Includes communities and ecosystems. Forest Tundra Savanna Desert A major type of ecological community, determined largely by climate. Ecosystem- comprised of 1 or more communities and the abiotic environment within an area. Population- an interbreeding group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area Community- the assemblage of interacting populations that inhabit the same area. Environmental Gradient Environmental Gradient Range of Tolerance Range of Tolerance Zones of Intolerance Zones of Intolerance Optimum Range Optimum Range Zones of Physiological Stress Zones of Physiological Stress Parameters that effect size or density of a population: Population ( N ) Emigration Immigration Deaths Births Figure 1. The size of a population is determined by a balance between births, immigration, deaths and emigration Birth Emigration Death Immigration Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Population Size 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 Population Size 100 200 300 400 500 600 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of Generations Exponential Population Growth Unlimited resources k k k = carrying capacity k is affected by: food production resource supply the env.s ability to assimilate pollution exponential sigmoidal limiting resources (e.g., food & shelter) production of toxic wastes infectious diseases predation stress emigration Increasing population density reduces resources and limits pop growth severe storms and flooding sudden unpredictable severe cold spells earthquakes and volcanoes catastrophic meteorite impacts Ecological...
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2011 for the course BIOL 101 taught by Professor Wong during the Fall '09 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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Ecological Principles - Ecological Principles Ecology = the...

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