Human Ecology - Human Ecology Human How Humans Impact the...

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Unformatted text preview: Human Ecology Human How Humans Impact the Environment the Consume Resources How Humans Impact the Environment the Renewable Versus Renewable Nonrenewable Resources Nonrenewable Hunger Hunger How Humans Impact the Environment the Produce Wastes Air Pollution Air Global Global Versus Local or Regional Local Impacts Impacts Global Impacts Global Global Warming Ozone Depletion Local or Regional Impacts Impacts • • • • • • Acid Rain Deforestation Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Sewage Dumping Toxic Waste Dumping Introduction of Alien Species Global Warming Global The E-M Spectrum Spectrum Fate of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth Reaching reflection clouds snow and ice the earth’s surface armospheric dust Fate of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth Reaching absorption atmosphere oceans land plant photosynthesis Fate of Solar Radiation Reaching the Earth Reaching radiation The Greenhouse Effect The Human-Produced Greenhouse Gases Gases Carbon Dioxide Methane Nitrous Oxide Carbon Dioxide Temperature Year Predicted Consequences of Global Warming of a a a a a sea level rise increased plant primary productivity increased storm severity changes to patterns of rainfall changes to ocean circulation patterns Global Warming Global Global Warming Global Global Warming Global 100 m sea level rise Global Warming Warming 100 m sea level rise El Nino • Oceanic and atmospheric phenomenon in the Pacific Ocean • Unusually warm conditions appear along the western coast of Ecuador and Peru • Causes climatic disturbances of varying severity - heavy rains cause mudslides - warm water effects anchovy fisheries • Occurs during December • Seiche- water in a confined space sloshing back and forth Non El Nino El Nino Acid Rain Acid pH Scale pH Logarithmic scale Acid Rain Acid Normal Rain • H2O + CO2 H+ + HCO3• A pH of 5.6 Acid Rain • More acidic than normal rain • Has pH < 5.6 • Form of water pollution Causes of Acid Rain Causes Air pollution • Burning of fossil fuels - Power plants - Cars, trucks, airplanes The main chemicals • Sulfur dioxide • Nitrogen oxides Ecological Effects from Acid Rain in Lake System Acid Changes begin to occur as soon as a lake starts to lose it natural bases or alkalinity. 1. A large reduction in the number of plankton & invertebrates. 2. The rate of decomposition of organic matter decreases 3. Direct effects on fishes reproductive cycles. 4. A calcium deficiency in fish leads to bone malformation. 5. Fish can suffocate as their gills become clogged with aluminum hydroxide. 6. Songbirds are effected by eating insects contaminated with toxic metals. Effects from Acid Rain Effects Effects from Acid Rain Effects Ozone (O3) Ozone Depletion Depletion Biology 100 Biology Human Biology Antarctica Ozone Level 2001 Naturally Occurring Ozone Destroying Chemicals Chemicals a a nitrogen from soils and the ocean hydrogen from atmospheric water vapor chlorine from the ocean a Human-Produced Ozone Destroying Chemicals Chemicals chlorofluorocarbons jet exhaust Effects of UV on Living Things Effects a a a a damage to DNA resulting in mutations damage to other biological molecules proteins: enzyme inactivation lipids: disruption of cell membranes & membrane transport systems Human Population Growth Growth Population Doubling Doubling Year 1850 1930 1975 2017 Population Size 1 billion 2 billion 4 billion 8 billion 600 Population Population Size 500 400 300 200 Exponenti al Population Growth 100 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 11 Number of Generations Carrying Capacity Carrying Carrying Capacity Density-Dependent Factors Factors a a a a a a llimiting resources (e.g., food & imiting shelter) shelter) production of toxic wastes infectious diseases predation stress emigration Density-Independent Factors Density-Independent a a a a severe storms and flooding sudden unpredictable severe cold sudden spells spells earthquakes and volcanoes catastrophic meteorite impacts Human Population Growth Growth Growing Population Population Slowing Growth Growth U.S. Fertility Level Level ...
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