Lecture Notes Week 00 (High School Review)

Lecture Notes Week 00 (High School Review) - CHEM*1040...

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CHEM*1040 – Review Please review THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW: Atoms consist of protons , neutrons and electrons ; are the basic building blocks of molecules and ions, e.g., hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and carbon (C) Isotopes – one of two or more atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic masses, e.g., 1 H, 2 H (deuterium) and 3 H (tritium) are all isotopes of hydrogen. Molecules are formed when atoms combine due to attractive forces, e.g., molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methanol (CH 3 OH), etc. Elements (refer to Table 2.1) can be atomic (composed of one atom) or molecular (composed of two or more atoms) Examples of atomic elements include: metals, e.g., Fe, Cr, Ag, Na, Ca, etc. Examples of molecular elements are: Hydrogen, H 2 (gas) Fluorine, F 2 (gas) Oxygen, O 2 (gas) Chlorine, Cl 2 (gas) Nitrogen, N 2 (gas) Bromine, Br 2 (liquid) Phosphorous, P 4 (solid) Iodine, I 2 (solid) Sulphur, S 8 (solid) Note: American spelling of S is sulphur; the Canadian/British spelling of S is sulphur. “Diatomic” indicates there are two atoms combined together, i.e., molecular oxygen is diatomic. The Molecular Formula is an abbreviated description of the composition of a molecule. e.g., O 2 , H 2 O, CO 2 , C 6 H 12 O 6 , C 12 H 22 O 11 , etc. What do these tell you? (i.e., composition: number and type of atoms present, ratio between the atoms) What do they NOT tell you? (i.e., molecular geometry: arrangement/orientation of the atoms, types of bonds, angles)
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Molar (or Molecular) Mass: sum of atomic masses of all atoms present in the molecular formula, e.g., Valium (diazepam); molecular formula is C 16 H 13 N 2 OCl. 16 × 12.011 = 192.176 13 × 1.008 = 13.104 2 × 14.007 = 28.014 1 × 16.00 = 16.00 1 × 35.453 = 35.453 Molar Mass = 284.747 Final Answer: M = 284.75 g/mol *Note the units and the number of significant figures* N.B. Refer to the significant figure rules listed in section 1.5 of the text (pp. 16 – 19) as well in the introduction of your CHEM*1040 laboratory manual. You will need to KNOW and be able to APPLY these rules in the laboratory and on exams. Ionic Compounds – compounds consisting of cations (+) and anions (-), associated to give an overall neutral (zero charge) species; generally, a combination of a metal and a non-metal , e.g., sodium chloride, NaCl; calcium bromide, CaBr 2 Empirical Formulae (ionic compounds) the relative number of ions in a substance with the smallest possible whole number subscripts that result in electrical neutrality. Who do ionic compounds differ from molecular compounds? Ionic Molecular composed of ions composed of neutral atoms metal + non-metal non-metals electrostatic forces hold ions together atoms share electrons (covalent bond) empirical formula molecular formula formula mass molecular mass
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Charges of Ions Charge Species Periodic Table Group
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2011 for the course CHEM 1040 taught by Professor Prokiacpak during the Spring '08 term at University of Guelph.

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Lecture Notes Week 00 (High School Review) - CHEM*1040...

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