Lecture Notes Week 08

Lecture Notes Week 08 - Week 8 For the next two weeks well...

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1 – Week 8 – For the next two weeks we’ll look at ATOMIC & MOLECULAR STRUCTURE … then we’ll finish with ORGANIC chemistry. SUMMARY OF TEXTBOOK SECTIONS: Chapter 7 : 7.1 – 7.5 ¾ Characteristics of light, quanta and photons. ¾ Atomic spectra and energy levels. ¾ Schrödinger and quantum numbers : 8.1 – 8.7, 9.2 – 9.5 ¾ Electron spin and electron configurations ¾ Periodic properties and bonding Chapter 9 : 9.6 – 9.9 ¾ Lewis structures for molecules and ions. ¾ Formal charges and resonance. ¾ Octet Rule : 10.1 – 10.4 & 11.5 ¾ Molecular shape and polarity (Refer to on-line VSEPR Interactive Tutorial) ¾ Hybridisation ¾ Intermolecular forces Early 19 th Century : Chemistry was a purely descriptive science. Reactions and properties observed and recorded – little understanding Late 19 th Century : Systematic behaviour of the elements is revealed but not understood. Mendeleev/Meyers & Periodic Table: elements arranged in order of atomic number fall into "groups" of related properties. Important clues to the structure of atoms & matter came from the study of the emission of light by atoms and molecules – which lead to the 20 th century science of SPECTROSCOPY. NOTE: Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, i.e., the dependence of a physical measure to frequency. Spectroscopy is heavily used in astronomy. Spectroscopy is also often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances, through the spectrum emitted or absorbed. A device for recording a spectrum is a “ spectrometer ”.
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2 SIMPLE HYDROGEN EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY EXPERIMENT: Reference: http://xenon.che.ilstu.edu/genchemhelphomepage/topicreview/bp/ch6/bohr.html In the spectrum of the simplest atom hydrogen (see above) how do we explain the lines? Why isn’t the spectrum continuous? Can we extend our ideas to more complex atoms and molecules? Refer to Figure 7.2 in text for the emission (line) spectra for other elements. THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Reference: http://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/rdg/color/color.shtml (Refer to Figure 7.5 in text for coloured version of the visible spectrum.) ******************************************************************************************************** For Your General Information: Radio waves are very long compared to the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. The radio spectrum is divided up into a number of "bands" based on their wavelength and usability for communication purposes. They extend from the Very Low Frequency portion of the spectrum through the Low, Medium, High, Very High, Ultra High, and Super High to the Extra High Frequency range as depicted in the illustration below. Above the EHF band comes infrared radiation and then visible light.
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3 Band Frequency Wavelength Some Uses VLF 3 - 30 kHz 100 km - 10 km Long range navigation and marine radio LF 30 - 300 kHz 10 km - 1 km Aeronautical and marine navigation MF
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Lecture Notes Week 08 - Week 8 For the next two weeks well...

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