Lecture Notes Week 10

Lecture Notes Week 10 - WEEK 10 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the...

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1 – WEEK 10 – ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the chemistry of _____________ compounds known compounds containing carbon is ~20× the number not containing carbon 2 main reasons for the number of carbon compounds: 1) carbon’s unique ability to form strong ___________________ with itself. 2) carbon’s ability to form ___ covalent bonds Constitutional or Structural Isomers : - compounds having ________ molecular formula but ____________ structures and therefore different properties. Example: C 4 H 8 O 2 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH CH 2 CHOCH 2 CH 2 OH CH 3 CH 2 COOCH 3 CH 3 CH(OH)CH 2 COH, etc. Organisation of Organic Chemistry need to classify compounds based on chemical properties by certain reactive parts of molecule: We classify carbon atoms according to ____________ of other carbon atoms to which they are attached: primary (1 ° ) – carbon attached to 1 other carbon (i.e., a terminal carbon) secondary (2 ° ) – carbon attached to 2 other carbons tertiary (3 ° ) – carbon attached to 3 other carbons e.g., propane two 1 ° carbon, and one 2 ° carbon . H–atoms are classified in the same way, based on the carbon atom to which they are attached. e.g., propane six 1 ° H, and two 2 ° H We classify compounds based on chemical properties of certain reactive parts of molecule, i.e., FUNCTIONAL GROUPS A. HYDROCARBONS Hydrocarbons : simplest organic compounds containing only C and H.
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2 Saturated hydrocarbons : contain only C–C bonds & therefore the max. # of H atoms per carbon atom. Two classes of saturated hydrocarbons: 1. 2. 1. Alkanes ¾ formula: C n H 2n+2 where n = 1, 2, 3, . .. e.g., methane (CH 4 ), ethane (C 2 H 6 ), propane (C 3 H 8 ), etc. Once an alkane has more than 3 carbons, isomers are possible and the number of isomers increases dramatically as the number of carbons increase. We need a system of naming these compounds!! International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry or IUPAC (http://www.iupac.org) System of Nomenclature : Three components: 1. Parent – longest chain Names of first ten alkanes (parent names): CH 4 methane C 6 H 14 hexane C 2 H 6 ethane C 7 H 16 heptane C 3 H 8 propane C 8 H 18 octane C 4 H 10 butane C 9 H 20 nonane C 5 H 12 pentane C 10 H 22 decane 2. Substituents – groups attached to chain Akyl substituents are derived from alkanes where -ane is replaced by -yl: CH 3 - methyl CH 3 CH 3 CH- isopropyl CH 3 CH 2 - ethyl CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 - propyl CH 3 CH 3 C-- CH 3 t-butyl 3. Numbers – used to identify position *************************************************************************************** SELF STUDY SECTION – REVIEW YOURSELF WITH the AID of the ORGANIC NOTES IUPAC Rules (refer to page 11 in organic notes) : 1. Locate longest chain & number each carbon beginning at the end nearest to substituents. 2. Name chain based on the number of C’s.
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Lecture Notes Week 10 - WEEK 10 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY the...

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