cog psych exam 3 - 1

cog psych exam 3 - 1 - EXAM 3: REVIEW GUIDE Language...

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EXAM 3: REVIEW GUIDE Phonology - Rules: combine sounds into words ex: “toma” vs “mtao” - the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language Semantics - meanings: rules: combine words, word-parts for meaning - test-take-er vs. test-take-ing - the learning of the system for expressing meaning in a language, including word learning Syntax - rules: combine words into (meaningful) sentences - “tickle me” vs “me tickle” - starts with 2 word sentences - stage 1: telegraphic speech word order = rules - stage 2: morphemes universal error: overregularization Pragmatics - rules: communication/conventions (social) polite vs impolite/informal - “give me the salt” vs “please pass the salt” - the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used Phoneme - individual sounds of language that carries meaning - 200 used all over the world English uses about 45 - “r” vs “l” - clicks? Tones? - Carry meaning
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- Infants can hear all different sounds - The elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages Morpheme - the smallest units of meaning in a language, composed of one or more phonemes - 24-30 mos - inflections: prefixes, suffixes play played, playing, plays duck ducks, duck’s - articles (a/an/the) & prepositions - fine-tune sentence meanings - sentences more complex, precise - smallest unit of speech with meaning trouble shoot er = 3 morphemes Generativity - the idea that by using the finite set of words in our vocabulary, we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas - unlimited number of sentences with infinite meanings - other species are limited - memory limits - cant learn by learning sentences have to learn rules Categorical speech perception - the perception of speech sounds as belonging to discrete categories - “pa” vs “ba” - voice onset time (the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating) - adults hear one way can infants? - at 1 month infants hear speech categorically like adults Holophrase/Holophrastic speech - first words
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- single words - communicate whole thought, phrase - gestures precede words - word functions as whole phrase milk = I want milk - the period when children begin using the words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time Telegraphic speech - stage 1 - 18-24 mos - 2 words together - convey specific meaning - not just rapidly naming things - ex: want apple, more juice, Daddy (out)side - articles left out, no plurals or past tense, etc. - small words left out a/an/the - word endings left out -ed, -‘s, -s, -ing - major sentence parts left out - “grammar” is correct eat cookie not cookie eat - syntax in telegraphic speech - word order john liks mary not mary likes john - early word order -parallels adult speech -no teaching - novel sentences - word order = specific meaning Word Order - check above Overextension
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- the use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2011 for the course PSY 0423 taught by Professor Timnokes during the Fall '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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cog psych exam 3 - 1 - EXAM 3: REVIEW GUIDE Language...

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