cog psych exam 3 -5

cog psych exam 3 -5 - Exam 3 5 Conceptual Development How...

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Exam 3 – 5 Conceptual Development How children form categories - what kinds of things are in the world - how are these things related to each other - children divide things into broad categories in order to understand them - important because different types of concepts apply to different types of objects - help make accurate inferences about unfamiliar objects - category heirarchies – categories that are relates by set-subset relations, such as animal/dog/poodle - basic level o the middle level, and often the first level learned, within a category hierarchy, such as dog as the animal/dog/poodle example o typically learned first o more consistent characteristics - subordinate level o the most specific level within a category hierarchy such as a poodle in the animal/dog/poodle example - superordinate level o the most general level within a category hierarch such as animal in the animal/dog/poodle example Theory of Mind - a basic understanding of how the mind works and how it influences behavior - toddlers and preschoolers - organizes understanding of particular psychological processes such as intentions, desires, beliefs, etc. - beliefs often originate in perceptions - desires can originate from either from physiological or psychological states - desires and beliefs produce actions - actions can change those same desires and beliefs - early step – understanding the connection between other peoples desires
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and their specific actions - understanding of the connection between desires anc actions emerges by end of first year - children’s understanding that desires lead to actions is firmly established by 2 - 2 year olds understand that desires can influence behavior but don’t understand that beliefs are also influential - by 3 – show some understanding of the relation between beliefs and actions - theory of mind module – a hypothesized brain mechaniam devoted to understanding other human beings o matures over the first 5 years, producing an increasingly sophisticated understanding of peoples minds False belief; autism deficits - tasks that test a childs understanding that other people will act in accord with their own beliefs even when the child known’s that those beliefs are incorrect - smarties experiment - 3 year olds have trouble understanding that other people act on their own
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