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Cog Psych - Attention

Cog Psych - Attention - Cog Psych Attention Chapter 4...

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Cog Psych – Attention Chapter 4 – Attention - Introduction o People can not do an infitinite amount of things at once o Limitations of processing info and how people learn to deal with these limitations o Perceptual attention – situations in which the goal of the task is to process info about some kind of sensory stimulus like the identity, color, or size of a visually presented object Whether people are able to select one perceptual item rather than another Whether attention can be divided across perceptual items o Complex actions – take plaxe over a longer period of time - What is attention for? o What are there limits? As things get more complicated, the speed and accuracy with which we do things goes down Even if we were able to process everything in the environment equally well, our performance would still get worse as complication increased Caused by the fact that our perceptual and cognitive systems are noisy o We do not perceive everything exactly as it appears in the environment, and we do not make decisions about what to respind to perfectly all the time Ideal-observer analysis – assumes that the cognitive system knows the task that it is supposed to perform and is able to pricess all of the availavle info Allows attention researchers to determine the best performance possible on the task given to subjects Predict that performance will decrease when the environment gets complicated
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There are often too many possibilities to be able to consider all of them efficienty Limiting the number of items that are considered reduces the number of combinations that must be entertained during processing Our action systems are limited Attention is useful for taking whatever info is being processed in parallel and transforming it in a way that facilitated action o Five Functions of Attention Focusing – limiting the number of items being processed Perceptual enhancement – increasing the gain of a stimulus in the environment Attention as a type of concentration Ex turning the radio up in the car to hear better Binding – combining perceptual info about different properties into a percept of a single object The information at low level perception must be brought together again in order to create the perception of a coherent object The process of bringing together these independent properties into a representation of an object Sustaining behavior – maintainging an action in the presence of potential distractions Usually effortful Action selection – choosing an action to be performed from among a set of possibilities Body has limited number of systems that can interact with the world Limited in the actions we can perform on the world
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