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CHAPTER 5: LANGUAGE Key Issue 1: ORIGIN AND DIFFUSION OF ENGLISH: Spoken by ½ billion people, most widely spoken, besides Mandarin Dispersed, as opposed to Mandarin which is clustered in China Official language in 50 countries English colonies: English is an official language in most former British colonies First diffused west from England to North America In the 17 th century Jamestown, Virginia built in 1607 and Plymouth Massachusetts built in 1620 were the first English colonies in North America United Stated diffused English to the Philippines Origins of English in England: The Celts arrived on the British Isles around 2000 BC speaking Celtic Around 450 AD tribes from mainland Europe invaded and pushed the Celts into the remote Northern and Western parts of Britain 1. GERMAN INVASION: Angles, Jutes and Saxons were the invading tribes- Germanic tribes Jutes-Northern Denmark, Angles-Southern Denmark, Saxons-Northwestern Germany Modern English has evolved from the languages spoken by the Angles, Jutes and Saxons Vikings from present day Norway landed on the Northeast coast of England in the 9 th century although they failed in conquering the islands some stayed to enrich the language with new words 2. NORMAN INVASION: English is different from German today because England was conquered by Normans in 1066
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Normans came from present day Normandy in France and spoke French which was established as the official language of England for the next 300 years England lost control of Normandy in 1204 under the reign of King John and entered a long period of conflict with France Fewer people then wanted to speak French so English became the dominant language again English and French mingled to form a new language in the 300 years that French was the
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2011 for the course APHUG 102 taught by Professor Cray during the Spring '11 term at Highlands GA.

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