Nano Science (Lec 14 Nanobiodetection and nano drug)

Nano Science (Lec 14 Nanobiodetection and nano drug) - MAE...

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MAE 287/EE 257 1
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Nanometer ( 10 -9 m) is a magic point on the dimensional scale. Nanostructures are at the confluence of the smallest of human-made devices and the largest molecules of living things. Nanoscale science and engineering here refer to the fundamental understanding and resulting technological advances arising from the exploitation of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of systems that are intermediate in size, between isolated atoms and molecules and bulk materials, where the transitional properties between the two limits can be controlled. 2
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Genomics is the study of an organism's entire genome. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts. Understand the biological and disease process on molecular level (DNA, RNA, and protein) Understand the genetic instructions that specify molecular components and their governing in both normal and perturbed states. Evaluate gene expression changes under the influence of drug, infections, and other types of stresses. Understand disease susceptibility, disease profiling and classification, drug discovery and response. Understand why certain disease can behave differently with respect to treatment response. 4
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Single nucleotide difference within DNA can cause a single change in the amino acid sequence of a protein. Because protein structures are the result of their amino acid sequences, some changes can dramatically change the properties of a protein by destabilizing the structure or changing the surface of the protein in a way that changes its interaction with other proteins and molecules. For example, sickle-cell anemia is a human genetic disease that results from a single base difference within the coding region for the β -globin section of hemoglobin, causing a single amino acid change that changes hemoglobin's physical properties. Sickle-cell versions of hemoglobin stick to themselves, stacking to form fibers that distort the shape of red blood cells carrying the protein. These sickle-shaped cells no longer flow smoothly through blood vessels, having a tendency to clog or degrade, causing the medical problems associated with this disease. (Left) The dynamic structure of hemoglobin is responsible for its ability to transport oxygen within mammalian blood. (Right) A single amino acid change causes hemoglobin to form fibers. 5
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Cost per Transistor 6
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The Human Genome Project, launched in 1990 resulted in the first complete sequencing of a human genome. This first human genome was fully sequenced in 2003 (13 years later) with the aid of an estimated $300 million and the collaboration of thousands of people, corporations, and institutions. In 2007, only 4 years after sequencing the first genome, the entire genomes of not one, but two people (Craig Venter and James Watson) were sequenced for a cost of roughly $1 million each.
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