Nano Science (Lec 15 Natural Nanobiosystem)

Nano Science (Lec 15 Natural Nanobiosystem) - MAE 287/EE...

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MAE 287/EE 257 1
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“ I would like to describe a field, in which little has been done, but in which an enormous amount can be done in principle. In the year 2000, when they look back at this age, they will wonder why it was not until the year 1960 that anybody began seriously to move in this direction. Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Brittanica on the head of a pin? ” - Richard Feynman, December 29, 1959
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DNA (Diameter) 2 nm Ribosome 10 nm Virus 100 nm Bacterium 100 nm Red Blood Cell 5000 nm Human Hair 50000 nm 4
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DNA codes for synthesis of proteins in the cell by producing complementary RNA (messenger RNA, mRNA). Transfer RNA (tRNA) catalyzes the alignment of polypeptide chain protein constituents and their peptide bonding. DNA-> DNA Replication DNA-> RNA Transcription RNA-> Protein Translation 5
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10 base pairs 3.4 nm 2 nm 6
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Species Base Pairs in Million Fruit Fly 180 Snake 2,100 Human 3,100 Onion 18,000 Fern 160,000 8
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Ribosome is a nanomachine with a size about 20 nm in diameter. Ribosomes read the information from messenger RNA (mRNA) and use it to produce proteins. Ribosomes do this by binding to a messenger RNA and using it as a template for the correct sequence of amino acids in a particular protein. The amino acids are attached to transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which enter one part of the ribosome and bind to the messenger RNA sequence. The attached amino acids are then joined together by another part of the ribosome. The ribosome moves along the mRNA, "reading" its sequence and producing a chain of amino acids. 18 nm 10
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Since RNA is constructed from four types of base pairs, there are 64 possible triplet sequences or codons (4x4x4). Three of these possible codons specify the termination of the polypeptide chain. They are called "stop codons". That leaves 61 codons to specify only 20 different amino acids. Therefore, most of the amino acids are represented by more than one codon. The genetic code is said to be degenerate. 11
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Protein Chain Amino Acids Peptide Bonding Structure of proteins—the basic building blocks for life. Proteins are chains of 20 different amino acids linked by ―peptide bonds.‖ Chain length can range from 40 to several thousand, commonly several hundred. 12
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Quaternary Secondary Tertiary Amino Acids Primary 13
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A typical human cell contains about 100 million proteins of about 10,000 types. Protein lengths in most organisms range from 50 amino acids to tens of thousands. A typical protein consists of a single polypeptide chain, and the largest know protein has more than 40 polypeptide chains . Protein networks guide the biochemistry of living cells, metabolic, and signaling pathway. 14
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Cells are tiny chemical factories, using protein nanomachinery to produce and deliver materials according to instructions encoded in the DNA. The nucleus holding the DNA, surrounded by the nuclear envelope and communicating with the rest of the cell through the nuclear pores. The DNA produces RNA which interacts with the ribosomes to synthesize proteins. Ribosomes are concentrated in the nucleolus,
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2011 for the course MAE 287 taught by Professor Yongchen during the Winter '11 term at UCLA.

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Nano Science (Lec 15 Natural Nanobiosystem) - MAE 287/EE...

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