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bio130 day 1 - BIOL 139 Mendelian Genetics Chapter 2 pp 13...

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1 Mendelian Genetics Chapter 2 pp 13 - 28 BIOL 139
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2 Genetic traits are passed on from one generation to the next Artificial selection – purposeful matings -domesticated plants and animals Dogs - domesticated wolves. Most compatible wolves were bred - selected for 1st non-wolf canine skull found dated at ~15,0000 years old - arctic Next…..pigs, goats, sheep, cattle ~ 10,0000 years ago
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3 Crops ~ 13,000 years ago (wheats) Middle east - Iraq, Iran, Syria
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4 Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Augustinian monk and expert plant breeder Experiments with garden peas
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5 Garden peas : easy to cross-fertilize, large numbers of offspring, short growing season Advantages to Mendel’s approach Clear-cut alternative forms of particular traits : purple vs. white flowers, yellow vs. green peas, round vs. wrinkled peas = phenotype Establishment of pure-breeding lines : offspring carry parental traits that remain constant from generation to generation Carefully controlled breeding : Use of reciprocal crosses and self-fertilization
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6 Phenotype = observable characteristic (largely determined by genotype) -commonly referred to as a trait Genotype = genetic make-up
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7 Mendel’s experiments with garden peas
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8 Mating of parents with antagonistic traits produces hybrids More……
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9 Mating of parents with antagonistic traits produces hybrids
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10 Prior to Mendel: theories that one parent contributes most to an offspring’s inherited features (disproved through reciprocal crosses) parental traits become mixed and forever changed in the offspring (disproved through reappearance of recessive traits)
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11 Monohybrid crosses Matings between individuals that differ in only one trait ALL F 1 progeny resembled one of the parental strains In F 2 progeny, lost trait reappeared monohybrids
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12 Discrete units of inheritance are alleles of genes.
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