Notes Test 2 - FDNS 2100 TEST 2 Lipids in the Body o Lipids...

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FDNS 2100 TEST 2 Lipids in the Body o Lipids are transported in as Lipoproteins (LDL) (“transport vehicle”) (“clusters of lipids w/ protein around it”) o Typed of lipoproteins in your blood Chylomicrons Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) Low density lipoproteins (LDL) High density Lipoproteins (HDL) LDL- low density lipoprotein o “bad cholesterol” o LDL gives up cholesterol to cells o LDL- less healthy o More lipid, less protein – lower density HDL – high density lipoprotein o “good cholesterol” o Transports cholesterol back to liver from the cells (body tissues) for disposal o HDL- healthy o Less lipid, more protein- higher density Health effects of lipids o Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Elevated (total) blood cholesterol is major risk factor Dietary saturated fatty acids raise blood cholesterol more than dietary cholesterol does
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FDNS 2100 Raises LDL and lowers HDL o Some research suggests Polyunsaturated fats lowers LDL Monounsaturated fats raise HDL o Sat. Fat Cheese, Beef, Milk (consumed in moderation) o Omega-3 Fatty Acids Diets high in fish oils (Omega-3-FA) o lowers blood cholesterol and reduces risk of CVD o It is recommended that fish be consumed at least once/week o To improve LDL/HDL ratio: Weight control Mono- and Polyunsaturated fats in diet Soluble fibers (oatbran) Antioxidants (vit. C and vit. E) Moderate alcohol consumption Exercise Being female o Cancer High dietary fat (sat. fat) may increase in some cancers (breast, prostate) o Obesity Dietary fat is easily converted (90% efficient) to body fat The Effects of processing on Unsaturated fats o Hydrogenated (sat.) fats o Trans-Fatty Acids
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FDNS 2100 Hydrogenation o Hydrogen gas in mixed with a liquid fat (oil) o Hydrogenation causes fatty acids to be more saturated and thus more solid E.g. hydrogenated corn oil= margarine o Hydrogenation also causes formation of trans fats Trans- Fatty Acids o Trans fatty acids can form during hydrogenation o Trans fatty acids are very common in Margarine Baked products Snack chips/ cracker ***are unhealthy because they may increase heart disease o Trans fats are harder for your body to metabolize (more sterically stable) so they can build up in your body Fat in the Diet o Added fats o Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and nuts o Milk, yogurt and cheese Take away Message o Reduce total fat intake - 20-35% or less kcal; but don’t go less than 15% of kcal o Reduce saturated fat intake- <10% of kcals o Reduce cholesterol intake < 300mg/day o Select lean meats and nonfat milks o Eat plenty of veggies, fruits, and grains o Use fats and oils sparingly
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FDNS 2100 Chapter 6- The proteins and Amino Acids Amino acids= building blocks of protein o Proteins are sequences of amino acids AA o Types of AA Essential: must come from diet Nonessential: can be made in body o Each amino acid can bond to two other proteins
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Notes Test 2 - FDNS 2100 TEST 2 Lipids in the Body o Lipids...

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